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Philippe Durey

(b Le Havre, June 21, 1750; d Paris, April 15, 1818).

French sculptor, draughtsman and engraver. He arrived in Paris in 1765 to become a pupil of Augustin Pajou. Although he never won the Prix de Rome, he appears to have travelled to Rome in the early 1770s. About 1780 or 1781 he was involved in the decoration of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux’s Hôtel Thélusson, Paris. From 1784 to 1785 he carried out work at the château of Compiègne, including the decoration of the Salle des Gardes, where his bas-reliefs illustrating the Battles of Alexander (in situ) pleasantly combine a Neo-classical clarity of composition with a virtuosity and animation that are still Rococo in spirit.

Beauvallet was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1789. During the French Revolution he was a passionate republican and presented plaster busts of Marat and of Chalier (1793–4; both destr.) to the Convention. He was briefly imprisoned after the fall of Robespierre in ...


David M. Sokol

(b Philadelphia, PA, June 23, 1822; d Claymont, DE, March 27, 1888).

American illustrator and printmaker. After being exposed early to the Neo-classical style of John Flaxman, Darley began his career as an illustrator in Philadelphia in 1842. Following a sketching trip west of the Mississippi during the summer of that year, he produced outline drawings that were adapted into lithographs appearing in Scenes in Indian Life (1843). His early book illustrations were published in periodicals such as Democratic Review and Godey’s Magazine. Working in line drawing, lithography and wood- and steel-engraving, his first major success was his series of illustrations for John Frost’s Pictorial History of the United States (1844).

After moving to New York in 1848, Darley dominated the field of American illustration with his illustrations of Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper’s tales and novels. He produced about 500 illustrations for Cooper’s novels and a similar number for Benson J. Lossing’s Our Country (1875–7...


James Yorke

[Mathias; Matthew]

(fl c. 1740–early 1770s).

English engraver, draughtsman and drawing-master. In 1748 his premises faced Old Slaughter’s Coffee House in St Martin’s Lane, London, a favourite meeting-place for adherents of the new Rococo style. His earliest known satirical print, the Cricket Players of Europe, is dated 1741.

In 1751 he issued A New-book of Chinese, Gothic & Modern Chairs, a slight publication on eight leaves. Twelve examples with bizarre backs were described as ‘Hall Chairs’ in a reissue of 1766, but it is more likely they were intended for gardens and summer-houses. A shell-back chair (Stratford-on-Avon, Nash’s House) corresponding to one of the designs was made for the Chinese temple erected at Stratford for the Shakespeare jubilee organized by David Garrick in 1769. Five plates from a second book of chairs (c. 1751), of which no copy survives, were apparently reprinted in Robert Manwaring’s The Chair-maker’s Guide (1766). Described as ‘Parlour Chairs’, they incorporate extravagant C-scroll motifs in the backs....


Laure Pellicer

(b Montpellier, April 1, 1766; d Montpellier, March 16, 1837).

French painter, printmaker and collector. He was taught by the painter Jean Coustou (1719–91) in Montpellier before entering, in 1783, the studio of David, to whose artistic principles he remained faithful all his life. His career as a history painter began brilliantly when, in 1787, he won the Prix de Rome for Nebuchadnezzar Ordering the Execution of Zedekiah’s Children (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). This early success was consolidated by the four years he spent at the Académie de France in Rome and by the enthusiastic reception of his Death of Abel (1790; Montpellier, Mus. Fabre) at the Salon of 1791.

In 1793 his royalist sympathies forced him to move to Florence, where the poet Vittorio Alfieri and his mistress the Countess of Albany, estranged wife of the Young Pretender, introduced him to the artistic and social life of the city. In the years preceding the French invasion of Tuscany in ...


Alexandra Herz

(b Venice, 1730; d Warsaw, ?1808).

Italian engraver. A student of the master engraver Marco Alvise Pitteri in Venice, and later of Lorenzo Zucchi in Dresden, he entered the service of the Margrave Friedrich at Bayreuth in 1760. There he engraved, among other things, a portrait of the Margrave painted by Francesco Pavona (1695–1777). In 1761 the Margrave named him a teacher at the Bayreuther Akademie, and soon after he sent him to Rome for further training under the guidance of Anton Raphael Mengs and Giovanni Battista Casanova, the latter a compatriot of Follin’s who had established a notable practice in Dresden. In Rome, Follin assisted in promoting the new theories of Neo-classicism being advanced by Winckelmann and Mengs. He quickly became acquainted with Winckelmann, who commissioned drawings and engravings of ancient sculpture from him. Follin also engraved a portrait of Winckelmann himself, painted by Casanova. The engraving (Hermanin and Lavagnino, p. 141) is Neo-classical in nearly every detail. Winckelmann is seen in profile, rising cameo-style from a concave oval framed by a broad band with rosettes at each corner. Follin and Casanova further classicized Winckelmann’s blunt features by endowing him with a mass of short curls reminiscent of an ancient conqueror or emperor. The idealized portrait head is cut just above the clavicle and placed so that the spectator looks up at the graceful curve of the bust. The depiction is clear and simple throughout; the engraver was nevertheless able to convey the different textures of flesh, hair and marble through his skilful engraving techniques. In ...


Helen Weston

(b Dijon, Sept 24, 1756; d Florence, Aug 18, 1795).

French painter and engraver. He was one of the most important artists to emerge from François Devosge’s school of art in Dijon. His reputation, like that of his fellow Dijonnais artist Pierre-Paul Prud’hon, is based on a number of Neo-classical works of a pleasingly poetic character, which Devosge had encouraged. In 1776 he became the first artist from the Dijon art school to win the Prix de Rome with his painting of an uplifting moral subject, Manius Curius Dentatus Refusing the Presents of the Samnites (Nancy, Mus. B.-A.). The Dijon academy was very quickly recognized as one of the most important outside Paris. As a student there Gagneraux was directed towards examples from antiquity, the Italian Renaissance and the work of Poussin. During his four-year study period in Rome (1779–81) he worked on a copy (Dijon, Pal. Justice) of Raphael’s School of Athens (Rome, Vatican, Stanze Raffaello) to fulfil his obligation to the States of Burgundy which sponsored him. He spent most of his life in Italy, working in the company of Anton Raphael Mengs, Johan Tobias Sergel and Henry Fuseli in the 1770s and with Antonio Canova, Gavin Hamilton, Goethe and Jacques-Louis David in the 1780s. In ...


Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Cádiz, ?1750; d Guatemala City, Sept 15, 1809).

Spanish engraver and architect, active in Guatemala. He studied in Cádiz around 1760, and in 1773 he moved to Madrid, where he was probably taught by the noted engraver Tomás Francisco Prieto (1726–82). In 1778 he was appointed assistant engraver of the Real Casa de Moneda in Guatemala, where he arrived the next year. Following the death of the principal engraver, he was confirmed in this post in 1783 and held it until his death. Besides his work as engraver of coin dies and medal stamps, Garci-Aguirre made numerous fine copperplate engravings for books (e.g. P. Ximena: Reales Exequias por el Señor Don Carlos III, Guatemala City, 1790) and other publications. In Guatemala he revived the art of engraving, working in the Neo-classical style, which he was one of the first to introduce to the country. He soon became involved with architectural works in connection with the building of the new capital of Guatemala City, first in the Real Casa de Moneda and then on other royal projects. From ...


Kelly Donahue-Wallace

[Gil y Pérez, Gerónimo Antonio]

(b Zamora, Spain, Nov 3, 1731; d Mexico City, April 18, 1798).

Spanish printmaker, medallist, and type designer, active in Spain and Mexico. He was one of the first students at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid (founded 1752), which awarded him a pension to train as a medallist from 1754 to 1758 under Spain’s Engraver General, Tomás Francisco Prieto (1726–82). In 1760 the academy named Gil Académico de Mérito for his medal-engraving skills.

Upon completing his studies, Gil briefly served as drawing instructor at the S Fernando academy but worked principally making copperplate engravings, letter press type, and medals. He was a frequent contributor to luxury books sponsored by the Real Academia de Historia and the S Fernando academy, including the so-called prince’s edition of Don Quixote (1780) and Antigüedades árabes de España (1787). He spent more than 15 years designing type for the Real Biblioteca, and was credited by his peers with rescuing the Spanish type-making industry. The finest works he carried out in Spain included the engraved illustrations for ...


Philippe Durey



Andrzej Rottermund


(b Dresden, 1753; d Warsaw, Nov 25, 1795).

German draughtsman, engraver and architect, active in Poland. He studied under Friederich August Krubsacius at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Dresden (1771). In 1773 he arrived in Warsaw, where he entered the service of Stanislav II, King of Poland (reg 1764–95), as an architect. He worked under the supervision of Jakub Fontana (1710–73) and later of Domenico Merlini. From the beginning of his career he won fame as a talented illustrator of historical scenes, including the Election of Stanislav II (1775). Towards the end of the 1770s he designed furnishings for the White House at Łazienki as well as for the Royal Castle (both Warsaw), where he introduced some Neo-classical elements to Merlini’s plan for the Great Hall (from 1777. Around 1780 Kamsetzer designed the Bagatela Villa, Warsaw, for the Italian painter Marcello Bacciarelli. Its asymmetrical plan, with a tower in one corner, was widely imitated in Poland in the late 18th century and the early 19th....