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Article

Liu Yu  

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Activec.1700.

Born in Suzhou (Jiangsu).

Painter.

Liu Yu painted figures in the style of Qiu Ying (active in the first half of the 16th century) with a great feeling of vitality. He was also skilled in the composition of trees, rocks, grass and flowers worked in elegant colours....

Article

Indian, 18th century, male.

Active between 1755 and 1785.

Painter.

Mir Chand imitated the art both of Persian 16th century miniatures and European artists. He frequently reworked European paintings, especially portraits, in the style of Persian miniatures, as in his Nawab Vazir of the Oudh Shuya ad Daulah...

Article

Teresa S. Watts

(b Mulhouse, Sept 28, 1727; d Kassel, bur May 1798).

Swiss architect, painter, draughtsman and writer. He served as an engineer in the French army (1748–54) and drew Gothic monuments in Spain (1748) and copied ancient vases and painted idyllic landscapes in Rome (1749–54). He then stayed from 1755 to 1759 with Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill, where he worked as a topographical artist, portrait painter and architectural draughtsman. Having left Walpole after a domestic dispute, Müntz attempted to support himself through commissions, producing drawings of a Gothic cathedral and possibly the Alhambra for Kew Gardens, a dining room and cloister (New Haven, CT, Yale U., Lewis Walpole Lib.) for Richard Bateman, and an oval room for Lord Charlemont, to complement his vase collection. All were in the Gothic style, as were a number of architectural drawings later used in a guide by Robert Manwaring (1760). Müntz left England in 1762 and spent a year recording monuments in Greece and Jerusalem before settling in Holland, where he worked until ...

Article

Austrian, 18th century, male.

Born 12 April 1693, in Prague; died 28 January 1753, in Prague.

Painter.

The son of Wenzel Nosecky. A member of the Order of the Premonstratensians (Roman Catholic order of regular canons founded in the 12th century by St Norbert at Prémontré, France), he primarily painted frescoes; numerous churches and chapels in Bohemia were decorated with his paintings....

Article

Pomposa  

Charles B. McClendon

Italian former Benedictine abbey near the mouth of the Po River and 45 km north of Ravenna in the province of Emilia Romagna. Although first documented in ad 874, a monastic settlement probably existed there at least two centuries earlier. Pomposa rose to prominence in the 10th and 11th centuries through the support of the Holy Roman emperors. Over the course of the 14th century, a notable series of wall paintings in three different buildings were sponsored despite the monastery’s waning fortunes. In 1663 the monastic community was suppressed by papal decree. The site was secularized in 1802 and became property of the Italian state after 1870.

The proportions of the wooden-roofed basilican church, along with the polygonal outline of its main apse, reflect influence from nearby Ravenna and Classe and suggest a date in the 8th or 9th century. An elaborate pavement of mosaic and cut stone (opus sectile...

Article

Anne-Mette Gravgaard, Nano Chatzidakis and Olga Etinhof

Term used to describe the art of Orthodox Christianity that developed after the fall of Constantinople (now Istanbul) in 1453 and the dissolution of the Byzantine empire.

Anne-Mette Gravgaard

The Orthodox world post-1453 can be divided into three main spheres: the Athonite sphere, consisting of Orthodox territories under Turkish rule; the Venetian sphere, consisting of Venice’s possessions in the eastern Mediterranean; and the peripheral sphere, consisting primarily of Russia, Bulgaria, Serbia, Moldavia (partly Moldova, partly Romania), Wallachia (now in Romania) and Georgia.

The Athonite sphere was dominated by two great centres of Orthodox monasticism, Meteora and Mt Athos. The economic basis for undertaking monumental and icon painting was weaker than in previous centuries; there were no imperial or wealthy aristocratic patrons left, and, even though the Ottoman authorities did not interfere with spiritual matters, the Orthodox population was often harassed by financial exactions. The expensive production of mosaics had already ceased in the 14th century. The main aims of the Church were to survive and to safeguard Orthodoxy. This was reflected in a pronounced conservatism towards art and in persistent efforts to keep it free from Western contamination....

Article

Sekkei  

Japanese, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1644; died 1732.

Painter.

Sekkei worked in the style of Sesshu (1420-1506) and the Chinese painter Muqi (active in the mid-13th century). He spent the whole of his career in Kyoto.

Article

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Active probably active during the reign of the Quing emperor Qianlong (1736-1796).

Born in Wujiang (Jiangsu).

Painter.

Wang Xian was a landscape painter in the style of Dong Yuan and Juran, the great 10th century landscape artists.

Berlin: Pine Tree and Flowering Plum Tree...

Article

Swiss, 18th century, male.

Died 1768, in Basel.

Painter. Portraits.

Zuber was probably from Schaffhausen. A painter by the same name was known there in the 15th century. This artist executed the portrait of Noble Tribune Joh. Casparus Stockarus. It was signed J. V. Zuber Pinx...