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In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ad 330 and 1453, studies of Byzantine art often encompassed Post-Byzantine art and that of culturally allied states such as Armenian Cilicia, Macedonia, and portions of Italy. As such fields as Palaiologan family manuscripts and wall paintings, Armenian manuscripts, and Crusader manuscripts and icons emerged, scholars identified new intersections between Western medieval and Byzantine art. Subtle comparisons emerged with the recognition that Byzantine art was not static but changed over time in style and meaning, although most analyses identified Byzantine art as an accessible reservoir of the naturalistic, classicizing styles of antiquity. Scholars considering the 7th-century frescoes at S Maria Antiqua and mosaics at S Maria in Cosmedin, both in Rome, and the 8th-century frescoes at Castelseprio and Carolingian manuscripts such as the Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne (Vienna, Schatzkam. SCHK XIII) used formal comparisons with works such as pre-iconoclastic icons at St Catherine’s Monastery on Sinai, along with the history of Byzantine iconoclasm, to argue for the presence of Greek painters in the West. Similarly, Ottonian and Romanesque painting and luxury arts, such as ivories, provided examples of the appropriation of Byzantine imperial imagery. Yet the study of works such as the great 12th-century ...

Article

Susan Pinto Madigan

(fl c. 976–1025).

Byzantine painter. The name ‘Pantoleon zographos’ (Gr.: ‘painter’) appears next to 79 of the 430 miniatures in the Menologion of Basil (976–1025) (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. gr. 1613). Pantoleon worked in Constantinople (now Istanbul), where he painted miniatures and icons and, according to a Life of St Athanasios the Athonite, witnessed a miraculous manifestation of that saint while he completed a commission for the Emperor. The Life reports that a certain Cosmas saw an icon of St Athanasios painted by Pantoleon and wanted one of his own. The owner agreed to find him a duplicate based on the original icon while Cosmas waited. When the owner arrived at Pantoleon’s shop to place the order the artist was perplexed, claiming that the day before he had received the same request from Athanasios, and that the icon was already completed. Pantoleon had experienced an ‘overshadowing’, having been visited by divine Grace....

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Spanish, 16th century, male.

Died 1533, in Naples.

Painter, illuminator.

Antonio Vazquez worked for the monastery of Monteoliveto Maggiore near Siena, where he executed a Virgin and Child in Byzantine style.