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Article

Matthew Woodworth

(b Walsingham, Norfolk; d Ely, Cambs, 1363).

English cleric, architect, and goldsmith. Already an accomplished goldsmith when first recorded as monk of Ely Cathedral in 1314, Walsingham was appointed sub-prior of Ely in 1316, sacrist in 1321, and served as prior from 1341 until his death. As sacrist, Alan of Walsingham was responsible for the building fabric, particularly finances and general repair. He also supervised new construction projects, organized and paid the labour force, and arranged for delivery of materials. During his tenure, Walsingham oversaw the building of a new sacristy (1322–5), the spacious Lady Chapel (1321–49), Prior Crauden’s Chapel (1322–8), guest quarters (1330), and Bishop Hotham’s partly remodelled choir (1338–50). Walsingham’s most ambitious project at Ely was the soaring Octagon and central lantern (1322–49), built to replace the original Romanesque crossing tower after it collapsed in 1322. Surviving Sacrist Rolls hold Alan himself responsible for the Octagon’s design, specifying that he measured out the locations of its eight supports, secured their foundations, and carried the walls up to their full height. Scholarship is divided as to Walsingham’s precise role in the Octagon’s final appearance, but, whether as architect or industrious layman, he brought to completion one of the most innovative and spatially complex structures of the 14th century....

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Born c. 1290, in Pontedera; died between 26 August 1348 and 19 July 1349, in Orvieto (Umbria).

Sculptor, goldsmith, architect.

As the son of the goldsmith Ugolino Nini, it is likely that Andrea Pisano da Pontedera started by learning his father's trade. However, nothing is known of his early years except that he appears to have joined the studio of Lorenzo Maitani of Orvieto. From ...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 1448, in Florence; died December 1502, in Florence.

Painter, miniaturist, architect, Camaldolese monk and abbot.

Bartolomeo della Gatta trained as a goldsmith (his father’s profession) and seems to have had contact with a large network of late 15th-century artists in Florence, Urbino, and Arezzo, including Andrea del Verrocchio, Piero della Francesca, and Luca Signorelli. A monk at the Calmaldolese monastery in Florence since ...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 1377, in Florence; died 16 April 1446, in Florence.

Sculptor (goldsmith), architect.

Much of our knowledge of Filippo Brunelleschi derives from a biography written around 1480 by Antonio Manetti, a contemporary of Brunelleschi. The son of a notary, Brunelleschi began his career as a goldsmith and in ...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Active also active in Poland.

Born c. 1500, probably in Verona; died 1570, near Parma.

Engraver, goldsmith, medallist, architect. Religious subjects.

Giovanni Caraglio was one of the greatest engravers of his period and enjoyed a considerable reputation in Italy and abroad, particularly in Poland where he created medals for King Sigismond. When he returned to Italy he settled first in Verona and later near Parma, where he remained until his death....

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1500, in Florence; died 1571, in Florence.

Draughtsman, sculptor, goldsmith.

Florentine School.

Benvenuto Cellini came from an artistic family: his grandfather was an architect, and his father was a musician who wished his son to be involved in music. However, Benvenuto decided to work for a goldsmith, Antonio di Sandro, and he very soon set up his own business. He was a colourful character: sentenced for beating and wounding, he had to escape Florence and go to Rome. He relates his adventures in his autobiography, ...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1523; died 1597.

Sculptor.

Vincenzo di Nicolao Civitali was the son of Niccolao di Matteo Civitali. He worked simultaneously as a goldsmith and an architect. He was active in Lucca, Carrara, Rome, Bologna and Ferrara.

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1530, in Perugia; died 1576, in Perugia.

Painter, sculptor (bronze/marble/cast iron/clay), draughtsman, goldsmith, architect. Religious subjects, historical subjects, mythological subjects. Groups, statues, low reliefs.

Vincenzo Danti was the brother of Girolamo and Egnazio Danti. He worked initially in the goldsmiths' trade, in whose guild he enrolled in ...

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 1415, in Bologna; died 1485 or 1486, in Moscow.

Architect, founder, medallist.

Rodolfo Fioravanti, a polymath, is known chiefly for having constructed, from 1475 to 1479, the Dormition cathedral inside the Kremlin, which despite its five gilded cupolas retains an essential simplicity....