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Article

Arnige  

Ian Alsop and Kashinath Tamot

[Chin. Anige; A-ni-ke; A-ni-ko; Nepalese: Arnike]

(b c. 1244; d c. 1306).

Nepalese sculptor, architect, and painter who worked in Tibet and China. A Newar from the Kathmandu Valley, Anige is now honoured in his native land as Nepal’s most famous artist of early times. He left his home at the age of 17 or 18, joining the myriads of wandering Newar artists who served the courts of the great lamas and emperors of Tibet and China. He so impressed his patrons at the court of the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1279–1368) that he eventually rose to a position of prominence as the director of the imperial workshops at the capital of Dadu, now Beijing.

No trace of Anige’s life and works has survived in Nepal, but this is not surprising given the dearth of historical records (as is the case throughout the Indian subcontinent), and the fact that artists were generally anonymous. Further, as Anige left the valley at a young age, his artistic distinction was almost entirely achieved in foreign lands....

Article

Filipino, 20th century, male.

Born 1937, in Sampaloc, Manila, Philippines; died 13 April 2013.

Painter, conceptual artist.

Roberto Chabet studied architecture at the University of Santo Tomas and graduated in 1961, the year he held his first solo exhibition, at the Luz Gallery. He achieved early critical success when he won first prize for his painting ...

Article

Anis Farooqi

(b Jhelum, West Punjab [now in Pakistan], Dec 25, 1925).

Indian painter, sculptor, printmaker and architect. Totally deaf from the age of 13, he studied painting at the Mayo School of Art, Lahore, from 1939 to 1944, and then at the Sir Jamshetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art, Bombay, from 1944 to 1947. After independence and the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947, he pursued his artistic career in India and for several years expressed in his work the anguish of the partition. From 1952 to 1954 he studied at the Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, and from 1953 to 1954 worked under David Alfaro Siqueiros on murals in University City, MI. He was also influenced by the work of the Mexican artist José Clemente Orozco, especially by his use of large forms and his treatment of human anatomy. In his paintings of this period, such as Despair (1954; oil, 0.9×0.9 m; New Delhi, N.G. Mod. A.) and ...

Article

(b Peshawar, Oct 25, 1926).

Pakistani painter and sculptor. He began painting while training as an engineer in the USA (Columbia and Harvard universities) and held his first exhibition in 1950. He continued to paint while secretary at the Pakistan embassy at Ottawa during the 1950s, developing a reputation for portraiture. In 1957 he was commissioned to paint the portrait of King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan, and in 1959 he held an exhibition of 151 paintings and sketches in Kabul. He also painted portraits of Prince Karim Aga Khan (1961), Zhou Enlai (1964), Queen Farah Diba of Iran (1965) and President Ayub Khan of Pakistan (1968). He then turned to making portraits from marble mosaic and semi-precious stones, a technique that he had developed in Kabul in 1959. His abstract paintings, produced since the 1960s, incorporate ornamental calligraphy, coloured beads, small pieces of mirror, and gold and silver leaf. These works include a large abstract mural painted in ...

Article

Heather Elgood

[Tulsi]

(fl c. 1560–1600).

Indian miniature painter. His work is characterized by an archaic quality, evenly spaced figures and a simple cross-section in architectural design that suggests his training in the indigenous pre-Mughal tradition. The earliest reference to both Tulsi and Tulsi Kalan (‘the Elder’) appears in the Razmnāma (‘Book of wars’; c. 1582–6; Jaipur, Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Mus., MS. AG. 1683–1850). Tulsi was given sole charge of three paintings (fols 45, 105 and 62) and Tulsi Kalan fol. 167. As a designer he worked on four folios with other artists, one of whom was Tulsi Khurd (‘the Younger’). Tulsi acted as painter for a design by Basawan and Lal and Tulsi Kalan for Daswanth. In the Tīmūrnāma (‘History of Timur’; c. 1580; Bankipur, Patna, Khuda Bakhsh Lib.) he had sole charge of one painting and worked on five folios as designer/outliner; he also acted as painter for Isar and Madhu Kalan. In the ...

Article

Filipino, 20th century, male.

Born 1937, in Manila.

Painter. Portraits, scenes with figures, genre scenes, urban landscapes.

Onib Olmedo trained as an architect before becoming a painter. He is now recognized among critics as the leading figure among the figurative painters of his generation and a faithful recorder of the human condition. His portraits of prostitutes, street sellers and poor children are a true reflection of real life in Manila....

Article

Rusli  

Indonesian, 20th century, male.

Born 1922, in Medan (Sumatra).

Painter. Architectural views, landscapes.

From 1945 to 1949, Rusli was professor at the Taman Siswa Institute. In 1951 he was appointed senior lecturer at the fine arts academy in Yogyakarta, and in 1970 he was elected to the Jakarta Academy. He lives and works in Yogyakarta....

Article

Indonesian, 20th century, male.

Born 1914, in Kisaran (Sumatra); died 1986.

Painter. Scenes with figures, local scenes, architectural views, still-lifes.

Sudjojono studied under Pringadi and the Japanese painter Jasaki. In 1937, he founded Persagi, the Indonesian Artists’ Association. The Indonesian government recognized his contribution to art in ...

Article

Laotian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France from 1974.

Born 1950, in Vientiane.

Draughtsman, engraver (etching). Landscapes, architectural views.

Manthourath Sundara’s work has been shown at collective exhibitions, including in1992 at From Bonnard to Baselitz: A Decade of Acquisitions by the Prints Collection 1978–1988...

Article

Geoffrey Ashton and Lin Barton

(Joseph ) [Johannes Josephus ; John ]

(b nr Frankfurt am Main, March 13, 1733; d Strand-on-the-Green, nr Kew, London, Nov 11, 1810).

German painter, active in England. Born Johannes Josephus Zauffaly, he was the son of Anton Franz Zauffaly (1699–1771), Court Cabinetmaker and Architect in Regensburg to Alexander Ferdinand, Prince of Thurn and Taxis. After an apprenticeship in Regensburg under the painter and engraver Martin Speer (c. 1702–65), a pupil of Francesco Solimena, Zoffany left in 1750 for Rome, where he studied under the portrait painter Agostino Masucci and came into contact with Anton Raphael Mengs. By 1757 and after a second trip to Rome, Zoffany was commissioned by Clemens August, Prince-Archbishop and Elector of Trier, to produce frescoes and paintings for his new palace at Trier and the palace of Ehrenbreitstein at Koblenz. All Zoffany’s early work at Ehrenbreitstein and Trier has been destroyed, but it may have been in the German Rococo manner of Cosmas Damian Asam and Johann Baptist Zimmermann. A number of small easel paintings such as ...