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Article

Leah Lipton

(b Perth Amboy, NJ, Feb 18, 1766; d New York, Sept 28, 1839).

American painter, writer and Playwright. After working in England with Benjamin West between 1784 and 1787, Dunlap concentrated primarily on the theatre for the next 20 years. His two main interests are documented in his large Portrait of the Artist Showing his Picture of Hamlet to his Parents (1788; New York, NY Hist. Soc.). He wrote more than 30 plays and was called by some the ‘father of American drama’. He was the director and manager of the Park Theatre in New York from 1797 until its bankruptcy in 1805 and again, in its revived form, from 1806 to 1811. He began to paint miniatures to support his family in 1805 and travelled the East Coast of America as an itinerant artist. By 1817 he had become, in his own words, ‘permanently a painter’.

Dunlap always lived on the verge of poverty. To increase his income, he produced a large showpiece ...

Article

Italian, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 28 June 1674, in Rome; died 5 March 1755, in Rome.

Painter, engraver, musician, scholar. Religious subjects, portraits.

Pierleone Ghezzi was the son and pupil of Giuseppe Ghezzi. He was commissioned by Pope Benedict XIV, together with L. Garzi, F. Trevisani and B. Luti, to paint, among other things, a series of ...

Article

German, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1755, in Gunzenhausen; died c. 1812 or 1815, in Prague.

Painter, miniaturist, writer, musician. Birds, flowers, insects.

Johann Jakob Norbert Grund gave up his position in the Church to devote himself to painting. He was also a musician and writer and taught at the academy of art in Florence....

Article

Stephen Addiss

[Uragami Hitsu; Ki Tasuku; Gyokudō, Ryosai]

(b Ikeda, Bizen Province [now Okayama Prefect.], 1745; d Kyoto, 1820).

Japanese Musician, painter, poet and calligrapher. Although he was more famous in his lifetime as a musician and little appreciated as an artist, Gyokudō has come to be considered one of Japan’s great painters in the literati painting tradition (Jap. Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)) and his rough, bold works are among Japan’s most powerful and individualistic artistic expressions. He belonged to the third generation of Japanese literati artists, who returned to painting in a more Sinophile, orthodox manner in contrast to the more unorthodox, Japanese approach of second-generation masters such as Ike Taiga and Yosa Buson.

He was born to a samurai-official family, and in 1752, a year after his father died, he took up the Ikeda clan duties. He received a Confucian-style education and as a youth studied the Chinese zither (qin). He was skilled both as a player and composer on this subtle instrument. The creative processes that he developed for composition, particularly with respect to asymmetry and repetition, were transferred to the calligraphy and painting of his later years. He took his art name (...

Article

British, 18th century, male.

Born 1730, in Exeter; died 12 July 1803.

Painter, musician, art writer.

William Jackson was the son of a shopkeeper. He was dedicated to music and became well known as a music teacher. He is of interest to the art world because of his close friendship with Gainsborough about whom he wrote a small book. He made pleasing landscapes and remarkable copies of his friend's works, more than one of which has been attributed to Gainsborough himself....

Article

Alkis Charalampidis

[Nicolas]

(b Zakynthos, 1741; d Zakynthos, 1813).

Greek painter, poet and Musician. He was a pupil of Nikolaos Doxaras (1754–9) and perhaps of Giambattista Tiepolo in Venice, the city that decisively influenced both his art and his life. After his return to Greece he was ordained (c. 1770), but due to his idiosyncratic character he suffered many personal vicissitudes. He worked chiefly on religious painting and portraits, his most important works being Litany (1766; Zakynthos, St Dionysios), modelled on Venetian images of religious processions, Pietà, Joseph and Nicodemus (both Zakynthos, Church of the Ascension), Mary Magdalen, Mary Cleopas, St John, St Peter, Six Scenes from the Life of the Blessed Virgin, Five Hierarchs (all Zakynthos, Mus.), Self-portrait (Zakynthos, D. Romas priv. col., see Lydakes, p. 200) and Portrait of a Nobleman (Athens, N. G.).

S. Lydakes: Lexiko ton hellenon zographon kai charakton [Dictionary of Greek painters and engravers] (1976), p. 200, iv of ...

Article

N. A. Yevsina

(Aleksandrovich)

(b Nikol’skoye-Cherenchitsy estate, nr Torzhok, 1751; d Moscow, 2/Jan 3, 1804).

Russian architect, theorist, illustrator, poet, Musician and inventor. An enlightened dilettante and encyclopedist from a princely family, he studied architecture on his own and travelled in western Europe (1775, 1776–7), above all in France and Italy. On his return to Russia L’vov worked at the Foreign Ministry and acquired a reputation as an architect from the early 1780s. His earliest works—the Neva Gate (1780–87) of the Peter and Paul Fortress in St Petersburg, the single-domed cathedral of St Joseph (1780–98) in Mogilyov and the similar five-domed church (1785–96) at the monastery of SS Boris and Gleb in Torzhok—are characterized by their austere simplicity, spareness of form and pronounced monumentality. They became the model for many Russian Neo-classical churches of the late 18th century and the early 19th. L’vov’s works for St Petersburg include the Post Office (1782–9), unexecuted designs for the Cabinet on the Nevsky Prospect (...

Article

Howard Caygill

(b Kamenz, Jan 21, 1729; d Brunswick, Feb 15, 1781).

German philosopher, critic and playwright. He was the leading representative of the German Enlightenment in the theatre and in criticism. Lessing studied theology at the University of Leipzig from 1746 to 1748, changing his faculty to medicine shortly before moving to Berlin. He was in Berlin intermittently until 1760, when he became secretary to the Prussian General von Tauentzien in Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland), remaining there until 1765. In 1767 he went to the liberal trading city of Hamburg in the hope of founding a German national theatre, and from 1770 until his death was the librarian to the Prince of Brunswick at Wolfenbüttel.

During Lessing’s first stay in Berlin he contributed a series of brilliant articles to the Vossische Zeitung, a journal of popular philosophy dedicated to the propagation of Enlightenment ideas. His first major critical works were his contributions to Briefe, die neueste Literatur betreffend (1759–65), along with Moses Mendelssohn (...

Article

Isabella Di Resta

(b San Miniato al Monte, Florence, April 21, 1772; d Naples, March 9, 1850).

Italian architect, stage designer and writer. He grew up in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, where his father, who worked as a prison guard, was interested in architecture and encouraged his son when, at the age of 14, he began to make drawings of buildings in Florence and to study the treatises of Vitruvius, Alberti and Palladio. He painted frescoes of architectural views in the workshop of the painter Pasquale Cioffi and was introduced to the art of theatrical design by Francesco Fontanesi (1751–95). Niccolini was greatly drawn to the culture and art of central Europe and was undoubtedly influenced also by the circle of the dramatist Vittorio Alfieri who had founded an academic theatre in the Palazzo d’Albany, Florence, for which Niccolini painted the scenery. He was also engaged in restoring and designing sets for a number of other Tuscan theatres, and his reputation for this work soon spread outside the Grand Duchy. In ...

Article

Flemish School, 18th century, male.

Born 1699, in Liège; died 14 September 1764, in Liège.

Painter, musician, poet. Religious subjects.

Pirotte was a pupil of Renier Panhay de Rendeux in 1716, of Benedetto Luti in Rome in 1721, and of Pietro Bianchi in 1727. His paintings can be seen in the churches of Wandre de Zomeren and of Floreffe near Namur....