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Article

Syrian, 13th century, male.

Metal worker.

Ahmad ibn Umar al Dhaki is thought to have come from Mosul, and had a famous workshop and numerous apprentices. Three leather objects, one in Cleveland Museum, one at the Louvre and one in a private collection in Switzerland, are signed by him and dated between ...

Article

J. M. Rogers

[Muh‛ammad ibn al-Zayn; Ibn al-Zayn]

(fl early 14th century).

Arab metalworker. He is known from signatures on two undated inlaid wares, the Baptistère de St Louis (Paris, Louvre, LP 16, signed in six places) and the Vasselot Bowl (Paris, Louvre, MAO 331, signed once). His style is characterized by bold compositions of large figures encrusted with silver plaques on which details are elaborately chased. His repertory develops themes characteristic of later 13th-century metalwork from Mosul (see Islamic art, §IV, 3(ii) and (iii))—mounted or enthroned rulers, bands of running or prowling animals, an elaborate Nilotic composition, courtiers bearing insignia of office, and battle scenes on scroll grounds with strikingly naturalistic fauna. His work is marked by a realism of facial expression, in which Turco-Mongolian physiognomy, dress, headgear and even coiffure are prominent, and a vigour of movement, gesture or stance that enlivens and transforms even the running animals and rows of standing courtiers, some in Frankish costume. The technique and style of these pieces allow their attribution to the Bahri Mamluk period in Egypt and Syria (...

Article

‛Ali  

S. J. Vernoit

[‛Alī; Ḥusayn ‛Alī]

(fl c. 1800–20).

Persian enamel painter. All of his work is associated with the patronage of the Qajar monarch Fath ‛Ali Shah (reg 1797–1834). ‛Ali signed his work with the title ghulām khānazād (‘slave born in the household’) signifying ‘artist in the royal service’. A jewelled nephrite dish (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus., Samml. Plastik & Kstgew., M3223) presented in 1819 by the Persian ambassador Abu’l-Hassan Khan to the Austrian emperor Francis I (reg 1792–1835) has a central gold plaque enamelled with a full-length portrait of Fath ‛Ali Shah (dated 1817–18), inspired by Mihr ‛Alis life-size oil portrait (Tehran, Nigaristan Mus.). Other objects enamelled by ‛Ali include an oval mirror with a carved jade handle (Tehran, Bank Markazi, Crown Jewels Col.); on the back is an enamel portrait of Fath ‛Ali Shah seated within a floral frame, probably the finest painted enamel in the collection (see Islamic art, §viii, 3...

Article

Baqir  

[Bāqir; Muhammad Baqir; Muḥammad Bāqir]

(fl c. 1800–30).

Persian painter in enamels. All of his known work was made for the Qajar monarch Fath ‛Ali Shah (reg 1797–1834). Like ‛Ali, he signed his work with the title ghulām khānazād (‘slave born in the household’), signifying ‘artist in the royal service’. Baqir painted a fine gold bowl and cover, saucer and spoon, which is enamelled with astrological figures and a poetic dedication to Fath ‛Ali Shah (priv. col., see Robinson, 1991, fig.). Several other objects enamelled by Baqir, such as an oval snuff-box with a portrait of the seated King and a teapot with busts of Fath ‛Ali Shah and floral swags and a dedication to the King, are part of the Iranian crown jewels (Tehran, Bank Markazi, Crown Jewels Col.). His style is similar to that of ‛Ali and is notable for its delicate execution and brilliant colour (see Islamic art, §VIII, 3). Baqir is probably the Muhammad Baqir who, together with ...

Article

[Mehmed-i Bosna]

(fl Istanbul, 1588–1605).

Ottoman Turkish goldsmith. As one of the craftsmen attached to the Ottoman court, he produced a number of elaborate pieces that are either signed by him or can be attributed to him on stylistic grounds. The latter group includes the crown presented by Sultan Ahmed I to his vassal Stephen Bocskay of Transylvania in ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 14 August 1888, in London; died 14 February 1929, in London.

Painter, medallist, illustrator. Portraits, landscapes.

London Group.

Sydney Carline was the son of George Carline and brother of Richard and Hilda Carline. He studied from 1907 to 1910 at the Slade School of Art in London and then in Paris. During World War I he served the Royal Flying Corps with his brother Richard and was posted to Italy, the Western Front and in the Middle East. He was appointed official war artist with the R.A.F. in ...

Article

Armenian, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1971.

Born 1940, in Yerevan.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman.

David Erevantzi was an apprentice goldsmith, silversmith and ceramist in his native town. In his student years he tried to renew the ancient goldsmith’s art, traditional in Armenia, at the same time as he was practising ceramics, painting and drawing. His work as a sculptor consisted of monumental stone sculptures, ceramic compositions for decorative purposes, small reliefs and medals. He drew his inspiration from nature, the history of his native country and the art of the early Middle Ages in Romania, arriving at a kind of dreamlike figurativism. He participated successfully in pan-Soviet and East Bloc exhibitions after ...

Article

Egyptian, 20th century, female.

Active from 1925 in France.

Born 24 April 1907, in Alexandria; died 1 March 1986.

Sculptor, medallist.

Daria Gamsaragan went to France to study sculpture, settling there in 1925. She entered the academy of La Grande Chaumière and became a pupil of Bourdelle. She also worked with Csaky and Constant. From ...

Article

Czech, 20th century, male.

Born 15 June 1886, in Prague.

Sculptor, medallist.

Jaroslav Horejc is best known as a medallist.

London, 22 Feb 1995: Market in the Middle East (oil on canvas, 22¾ × 30¾ ins/58 × 78 cm) GBP 1,610

Prague, 20 Nov 1999...

Article

Opizari  

N. Yezerskaya

(fl second half of the 12th century).

Georgian goldsmiths and silversmiths. They were outstanding exponents of the traditional techniques of embossing and chasing in silver gilt (see Georgia, Republic of §V 1., (i)). They worked in a monastery at Opiza (Turk. Bağular) in the Georgian princedom of Tao-Klardjeti (now north-east Turkey), where Beka Opizari may have been Beshken Opizari’s pupil.

Beshken’s work is known only from the silver-gilt cover of the Berti Gospels (Tbilisi, Acad. Sci., Inst. MSS). Two of Beka’s works survive: the cover for the Tskarostavi Gospels (Tbilisi, Acad. Sci., Inst. MSS) and the mounting for the icon of Christ the Saviour (Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.) from the Anchiskhati Monastery in southern Georgia. Both Gospel covers depict a Deësis and a Crucifixion in which the figures stand out in high relief against an abstract background and are framed by vegetal ornament. Whereas Beshken’s figures are distinguished by an archaic severity of form, Beka’s are more sculptural. In the outer frame of the Anchiskhati icon mounting Beka combines modelled full-length and half-length figures with bands of ornate triple tendril motifs to create a particularly fine example of Georgian gold work....