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Article

Spanish, 14th century, male.

Goldsmith, enameller.

Ramon Andrea worked on the silver retable decorated with enamels in Gerona Cathedral.

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born in Vicenza; died 1570, in Rome.

Goldsmith, sculptor (wood), engineer.

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Born in Limoges; died before 1583, at an advanced age.

Painter, enameller.

Jehan Court was the son of a goldsmith also named Jehan Court (called Vigier), who is mentioned in 1509. Siret says that he was a pupil of Léonard Limosin. Deeds in the archives of the Haute-Vienne refer to him as a master painter and there are critics who think that, given the rarity of his works, enamelling was not his main profession. He is referred to as making enamels in about ...

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...

Article

Walloon School, 12th century, male.

Active in France, England, Germany.

Goldsmith, enameller.

A native of Huy, this artist lived in Liège but travelled in Germany, England and France to carry out commissions. This suggests the reputation he had as an enamel worker. In 1145 Abbot Suger himself asked him to make the great cross of St-Denis, so admired was he by his contemporaries. Unfortunately very few of his works have survived: a reliquary of St Anthony and those of St Mengold and St Domitien, which have been restored....

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Goldsmith, enameller.

Article

12th century, male.

Active at the end of the 12th century.

Born 1130; died 1205.

Goldsmith, enameller.

Moselle school.

Nicolas de Verdun worked at Tournai, Cologne and Vienna, following in the footsteps of Godefroid de Huy and adopting the new iconography of Abbot Suger. He is known above all for the reredos in Klosterneuburg, Austria (completed in ...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1525, in Trentino Alto Adige; died 27 May 1608, in Venice.

Sculptor, medallist, decorative designer. Mythological subjects, religious subjects. Busts.

Venetian School.

Alessandro Vittoria settled in Venice in 1543 and was apprenticed to Jacopo Sansovino. Vittoria's first (unfinished) statue, a ...