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Article

Roberta K. Tarbell

[Margaret] (Frances)

(b Ridgefield, CT, May 2, 1895; d Kennebunk, ME, Jan 4, 1987).

American printmaker, illustrator, painter, and writer. Bacon’s artist parents, Elizabeth and Charles Roswell Bacon, met at the Art Students League around 1890. Bacon lived in Cornish, NH (1903), and in Montreuil-sur-Mer, France (1904–6), and learnt French, Latin, Greek, drawing, and writing from tutors before attending the Kent Place School in Summit, NJ (1909–13). She then attended the School of Applied Design for Women briefly and the New York School of Fine and Applied Arts. In 1914 and 1915, landscape artist Jonas Lie (1880–1940) taught her oil painting. At the Art Students League (1915–20), she took the ‘Women’s Life Class’ with Kenneth Hayes Miller, portraiture with George Bellows, and painting with John Sloan, studied briefly with George Bridgman (1864–1943) and Max Weber, and received critiques in printmaking from Mahonri Young. She then studied modern painting with Andrew Dasburg (...

Article

Irma B. Jaffe

(b New Brunswick, NJ, Aug 15, 1922; d Northampton, MA, June 3, 2000).

American sculptor, illustrator and printmaker. Baskin studied at the New York University School of Architecture and Allied Arts (1939–41), the School of Fine Art (1941–3) and New School for Social Research (1949). He also studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris (1950) and the Accademia delle Belle Arti in Florence (1951). Inspired by the iconic, monolithic imagery of Ancient Egyptian and Sumerian art, and the similar stylistic qualities of Romanesque and Italian Gothic, he consistently and inventively made use of the archaic mode in such prints as the powerful woodcut Man of Peace (1952; see Fern and O’Sullivan, p. 61) as well as in his sculpture. A traditionalist, he carved in wood and stone, and modelled in clay, taking the human figure as his subject. He firmly believed that painting and sculpture should mediate between artist and viewer some moral insight about human experience, and he was convinced that abstract art could not do this. Throughout his career he rejected spatial penetration of form, preferring the holistic look of such works as the ...

Article

Henry Adams

(b Neosho, MO, April 15, 1889; d Kansas City, MO, Jan 19, 1975).

American painter, illustrator, and lithographer. One of the most controversial personalities in American art, both in his lifetime and today, Thomas Hart Benton was a key figure in the American Regionalist movement of the 1930s, when he focused on working-class American subject-matter and was outspoken in his denunciation of European modern painting. Today he is best remembered for this phase of his life, and much criticized because of it. But Benton’s long career is not easily reduced to a single moment or achievement: his legacy was more complex. As a young struggling artist in Paris and New York, he was a leading American modernist and abstractionist, and in his early maturity he became the teacher and lifelong father figure for Jackson Pollock, the most famous of the Abstract Expressionists. He was also a major American writer, who wrote on art and whose autobiography of 1936 became a best-seller. He was also a notable figure in American music who collected American folk songs and devised a new form of harmonica notation that is still in use....

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 3 March 1902, in Cincinnati (Ohio); died 19 February 1988, in New York.

Painter, printmaker, graphic artist. Figures, nudes, interiors, urban landscapes.

Fourteenth Street School.

Isabel Bishop came to New York in 1918 to study at the School of Applied Design for Women, and in the early 1920s she attended the Arts Students League, studying under Kenneth Hayes Miller and Guy Pène du Bois. Bishop studied the structure and composition of works by Mantegna, Piero della Francesca and Chardin, and was also influenced by Dutch and Flemish painters such as Adriaen Brouwer and Peter Paul Rubens. By ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1931, in New York.

Poster artist, illustrator, graphic designer, print artist.

Seymour Chwast became acquainted with graphic art and typography while still at Abraham Lincoln High School, Coney Island. He went on to study illustration and graphic design at the Cooper Union. Since the 1950s, Chwast has been known for his expressive style, which ran counter to the then dominant Formalism. In the 1960s, together with Milton Glaser and Edward Sorel, he founded the Push pin Studio, which was to leave its mark on an entire generation of graphic designers. When the Musée des Arts décoratifs in Paris held a retrospective of the Push pin style, Chwast was naturally included. His touch is allied to a broad knowledge of traditional design, styles and forms, which he applies to illustration. From his beginnings at Cooper Union, he has worked as a woodcut artist, using woodcuts in his graphic work. A committed, non-conformist artist, Chwast was influenced by the work of André François and Saul Steinberg. He has also illustrated numerous children's books. In ...

Article

revised by Margaret Barlow

(b New York, Aug 18, 1931).

American graphic designer and illustrator. Chwast drew prodigiously in comic-book fashion as a child. From 1948 to 1951 he studied design, illustration, painting, and woodcut at the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York, and was influenced by the work of such artists as Paul Klee, Georges Rouault, and Ben Shahn. He worked as a junior designer in the advertising department of the New York Times and then for House and Garden and Glamour magazines. In his spare time, together with Edward Sorel (b 1929) and Reynold Ruffins (b 1930), he published the Push Pin Almanack, a promotional brochure that led to numerous freelance commissions. In 1954, with Sorel, Ruffins, and Milton Glaser, Chwast founded the Push Pin Studios, New York. Both Chwast and Glaser sought to bring a new vitality to graphic design with a return to hand-drawn lettering and illustration in contrast to the then standard use of photomontage and Bauhaus-derived, abstract forms. In the 1950s they each created elastic new ...

Article

Jean E. Feinberg

(b Cincinnati, OH, June 6, 1935).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, illustrator, performance artist, stage designer and poet. He studied art at the Cincinnati Arts Academy (1951–3) and later at the Boston Museum School and Ohio University (1954–7). In 1957 he married Nancy Minto and the following year they moved to New York. Dine’s first involvement with the art world was in his Happenings of 1959–60. These historic theatrical events, for example The Smiling Workman (performed at the Judson Gallery, New York, 1959), took place in chaotic, makeshift environments built by the artist–performer. During the same period he created his first assemblages, which incorporated found materials. Simultaneously he developed the method by which he produced his best known work—paintings, drawings, prints and sculptures that depict and expressively interpret common images and objects.

Clothing and domestic objects featured prominently in Dine’s paintings of the 1960s, with a range of favoured motifs including ties, shoes and bathroom items such as basins, showers and toothbrushes (e.g. ...

Article

Margaret Moore Booker

(b Cincinnati, OH, Jan 31, 1875; d Sellersville, PA, Sept 4, 1955).

American printmaker and illustrator. Among the pioneer generation of women printmakers in America, she was known for her humorous satires of the American scene. Raised in New Orleans, she moved to San Francisco where she studied art at the Hopkins Institute (c. 1896–7) and joined the Sketch Club (a professional organization that offered exhibition and collaboration opportunities for women).

By 1903 she had settled in Greenwich Village. Three years later she married the painter and etcher Eugene Higgins (1874–1958), and set aside her career. When the marriage ended 11 years later, she became a secretary of the Whitney Studio Club (where she attended evening sketch sessions), shed her married name and traveled abroad. During a trip to Paris in 1926–7, she discovered the medium that suited her artistic temperament: lithography, and studied the technique with Edouard Dûchatel (fl 1880s–1930s) in Paris.

After returning to New York, in ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 18 May 1938, in Boston.

Painter, watercolourist, graphic artist, printmaker. Still-lifes, figures, landscapes.

Janet Fish's grandfather, Clark Voorhees, was an American Impressionist painter, her father was an art history teacher, and her mother, Florence Whistler Fish, was a sculptor and ceramicist. Fish studied sculpture and printmaking at Smith College, Northampton, MA, obtaining a BA in 1960; at Yale University School of Art and Architecture, New Haven (1961-1963), receiving a BFA and an MFA; and at Skowhegan School of Art, Maine (summer 1962). She has taught at the School of Visual Arts, New York; Skowhegan School of Art; Institute of Fine Arts, Santa Fe; Vermont Studio Center, Johnston; and has held the Albert Dorne visiting professorship at the University of Bridgeport, CT. Fish lives in New York City and near Rutland, Vermont....

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 30 May 1931, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, graphic artist, printmaker, lithographer. Still-lifes, figures.

Audrey Flack studied at the Cooper Union, New York (1948-1951); Yale University, New Haven (BFA, 1952) with Jossef Albers; the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University (1953); and the Art Students League, New York, under Robert Beverly Hale. She has taught in New York at the Pratt Institute and New York University (1960-1968); the Riverside Museum Master Institute (1966-1967); the School of Visual Arts (1970-1974); and the National Academy of Design (from 1987). Flack has been Albert Dorne Professor at University of Bridgeport, CT (1975); Mellon Professor at the Cooper Union, New York (1982); C. & R. Smith Distinguished Visiting Professor, George Washington University (1992); and Visiting Professor, University of Pennsylvania Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia (1994). She has served on the boards of directors of the College Art Association of America (1989-1994), the Wonder Woman Foundation, and Interns for Peace....