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Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Takaoka, Toyama Prefecture; died 2001.

Print artist (woodblock).

Kazumi Amano graduated from Takaoka High School of Industrial Art in 1945. In 1950 he studied with Shiko Murakata, a renowned graphic arts master in Japan. After 1968 Amano visited the United States on several occasions and moved there to teach, then settled in New York in ...


Alan Powers

(Irving Jeffrey)

(b Haiphong, French Indo-China [now Vietnam], Oct 16, 1900; d Rodmersham, Kent, Nov 8, 1979).

English illustrator and author. From 1905 he grew up in England, becoming a professional artist in 1926 after part-time study at the Westminster School of Art, London. He became known as an illustrator of genre scenes in a variety of media, often with a comic Victorian flavour. He was best known for illustrated stories, the first of which, Little Tim and the Brave Sea-captain (Oxford, 1936), was followed by numerous imaginative and popular children’s books and by many other illustrated books. Baggage to the Enemy (London, 1941) reflected his appointment in 1940 as an Official War Artist, recording the German invasion of France, and the North African and Italian campaigns. His freelance career continued after the war with a steady production of illustrative and ephemeral work in an instantly recognizable style that relied on ink line and delicate washes.

The Young Ardizzone: An Autobiographical Fragment (London, 1970) Diary of a War Artist...


Hiroshi Kashiwagi

(b Tokyo, Feb 19, 1929).

Japanese graphic designer . He graduated from Hosei University (Tokyo). In 1955 he received an award from the Japan Advertising Artists Club for his poster Give back the Sea, establishing himself as a socially committed designer. He was initially influenced by the American designer Ben Shahn. In 1962 he designed the iron gate for the government office building at the Izumo Grand Shrine (Shimane Prefect.). In 1965, along with many of Japan’s leading designers, he was chosen to take part in the Persona Exhibition, which stressed the personal identities of individual designers. In 1975 Awazu was art director on Shūji Terayama’s film Den’en ni shinu (‘To die in the country’). During the 1960s and 1970s Awazu’s work was influenced by the vernacular design that challenged Japanese modernism. He has designed for many national and international exhibitions, including Expo ’70 (Osaka). Since the late 1980s much of Awazu’s work has been commissioned by national and local government bodies....


Mark H. Sandler


(b Kyoto, March 3, 1844; d Kyoto, February 20, 1895).

Japanese painter, book illustrator and art educator. Born the fourth son of Yasuda Shirobei, a Kyoto moneylender, the young Bairei was adopted into the Kōno family. In 1852 he began his artistic training under the Maruyama-school painter, Nakajima Raishō (1796–1871). After Raishō’s death, Bairei studied with the Shijō-school master Shiokawa Bunrin (1808–77). He also studied Chinese literature and calligraphy with Confucian scholars. In 1873 his talent was officially recognized when he was included among the painters selected to show at the second Kyoto Exhibition.

In 1878 he and the painter Mochizuki Gyokusen (1834–1913) successfully petitioned the governor of Kyoto Prefecture to establish the Kyoto Prefectural Painting School (Kyōto Fu Gagakkō) in 1880. Bairei was appointed instructor in the Kanō and Tōyō Sesshū styles of ink painting (suibokuga; see Japan §VI 4., (iii)), but in 1881 he resigned his post to open a private art academy. Among his students were ...


Stephen Addiss

[Kameda Chōkō; Kameda Hōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1752; d Edo, 1826).

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and book illustrator. The son of an Edo merchant, he studied calligraphy from a very early age under the noted Chinese-style calligrapher Mitsui Shinna (1700–82). He also received a Confucian education, unusual at that time for a merchant’s son. From about 1765 to 1774 Bōsai trained under Inoue Kinga (1732–84), an influential Confucian scholar of eclectic doctrines as well as a painter and calligrapher, at the Seijūkan, a private academy near Yokohama. Bōsai opened a Confucian academy in Edo in 1774. In 1790, however, the Tokugawa shogunate issued an edict aimed at curtailing the popularity of such schools as Bōsai’s, where students were encouraged to develop their own moral philosophy rather than accept the government-sponsored Confucianism of the Chinese Song-period (ad 960–1279) philosopher Zhu Xi. Bōsai gradually lost his pupils and in 1797 closed his school.

Bōsai’s artistic activity increased from ...


Tadashi Kobayashi

[ Mori ]

( fl Edo [now Tokyo], 1760–94; d c. 1794).

Japanese print designer and book illustrator . He may have been a pupil of the ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) artist Ishikawa Yukimoto. He is principally known for prints of the following types: hosōban (‘narrow format’, c. 320×150 mm); yakushae (‘pictures of actors’) and bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’). In its eclecticism, his style resembles that of his contemporaries, Katsukawa Shunshō ( see Katsukawa family, §1 ) and Suzuki Harunobu , who incorporated a lyricism with a naturalistic depiction of the subject. In 1770 Bunchō collaborated with Harunobu and Shunshō to produce Ehon butai ōgi (‘Picture book of stage fans’; untraced), which featured a new type of yakushae, yakusha nigaoe (‘pictures of likenesses of actors’) and challenged the traditional dominance of theatre illustration by the Torii family school. In Ehon butai ōgi, Bunchō depicted onnagata (kabuki actors playing female roles), while Shunshō illustrated kata keyaki (kabuki villains). Bunchō abandoned ...


Chinese, 10th – 11th century, male.


Born towards the middle of the 10th century, in Huayuan, now Yaoxian (Shanxi).

Painter. Landscapes.

Fan Kuan’s biographical details are not well known. He was a landscape painter from northern China. It appears that he did not hold any official position and, after a peripatetic youth, he retreated into the mountain range of Mount Hua to devote himself to Daoism and the contemplation of nature. His work conveys the austere grandeur of the Shanxi mountains. Indeed, it represents the apogee of Chinese landscape painting and is among the most sublime in its entire history....


Japanese, 20th century, male.

Draughtsman, poster artist, graphic designer, sculptor.

Op Art.

Fukuda Shigeo is an international figure. He exhibits frequently, receiving numerous awards. He first exhibited in France in 1992, at the Quimper Contemporary Art Centre, and later at the Echirolles Mois du gra­phisme exhibition. Working in the tradition of Escher, he has become a master of illu­sionism. Drawings and objects can immediately be seen in two ways, familiar and disturbing, even absurd or impossible. His outlines, his even style of drawing, his flat colours all contribute to this visual tension....


Hiroshi Kashiwagi

(b Nagano, June 22, 1903; d March 26, 1986).

Japanese graphic designer. He graduated from the Tokyo Prefectural School of Technology in 1921 and taught there from 1922 to 1941. During this period he was exposed to the work of overseas avant-garde artists László Moholy-Nagy, Herbert Bayer and El Lissitzky. He also established links with Tomoyoshi Murayama and other members of the Sankakai group of painters. These contacts had a great influence on his later designs and led to his emergence as the founder of Japanese modern design. In 1933 he participated in the founding of the Japan Studio (Nihon Kōbō). He designed the photography exhibitions in Junzō Sakakura Japan Pavilions for the Paris World Expositions of 1937 and the New York Exposition of 1939. These exhibits exemplified Hara’s philosophy that the real work of the designer is the organization of graphic elements. His designs for the propaganda magazine Front (published by the Tōhōsha company) during the Pacific War (...


Tadashi Kobayashi

[Suzuki Hozumi; Shikojin, Chōeiken]

(b ?Edo [now Tokyo], ?1725; d Edo, 1770).

Japanese printmaker, book illustrator and painter. A central figure in the development of ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) woodblock printmaking during the mid-Edo (1600–1868) period (see Japan §X 3., (iii)), Harunobu’s most important contribution was the introduction of the first full-colour printing technique to Japan. Stylistically, the new image of feminine beauty that Harunobu created in his bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’) single-sheet prints influenced a generation of ukiyoe artists. Like many Edo period ukiyoe masters, Harunobu left few clues to his identity. He was probably born into the chōnin (merchant and artisan) class. An entry referring to Harunobu’s death in the Nishikawaka kakochō (‘Death registry of the Nishikawa family’) indicates that he had a close association with the family of the Kyoto ukiyoe artist Nishikawa Sukenobu. His treatment of trees, shrubs and rocks in his bird-and-flower (kachō) painting on folding screens (...