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American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1968, in Bridgeton (New Jersey).

Painter, sculptor, mixed media artist.

Contemporary art.

Bailey was born in Bridgeton, New Jersey, and grew up in Atlanta, Georgia, where he continues to live and work. Since receiving his Bachelor of Fine Arts at the Atlanta College of Art in 1991, where he concentrated primarily on sculpture, Radcliffe Bailey’s work has taken on many different forms and utilised a wide array of media. Bailey’s conceptual exploration of history and memory as filtered through his complex relationship to America and Africa has led the artist’s work to evolve into installation, mixed-media, drawing, painting, and assemblage. His work is made up of two-dimensional and three-dimensional forms of various scale, ranging from smaller curio cabinet-like objects to monumental installations.

Bailey incorporates painting, photography, and found objects to create engaging works that evoke the past, the present, and the magical unknown. Through his signature use of layering imagery, text, marking, and found objects, Bailey unveils important themes within his work. Often incorporating culturally evocative elements, such as bits of wood or textile, each element is pieced together to create an inquiry into Bailey’s own experience of history through the lens of his racial and global perspective....


(b Bartica, Feb 26, 1934).

British painter, art critic, and curator. Bowling was born Bartica, British Guiana, and in 1953 moved to England during a time of mass migration of people from the British Commonwealth after World War II, known as the “Windrush Generation” (Beauchamp-Byrd 1997, 20). Upon arriving in England he first served in the Royal Air Force and in 1959 he received a scholarship to study art at the Royal College of Art (RCA) in London. His work at the time was figurative and almost always oil paint on canvas. He graduated in 1962 and received the silver medal in painting. From 1958 to 1963 Bowling was a founding member of the Young Commonwealth Artists Group. After graduation, Bowling’s work shifted to abstraction, and he began using acrylic paint. He went on to receive Guggenheim Fellowships in 1967 and 1973. In 1971 he had a solo show at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. Bowling became the first Black artist to be elected a member of the Royal Academy, London, in ...


born Adelheid Hildegard Müller

Swiss, 20th century, female.

Born 23 February 1926, in Winterthur, Switzerland; died 11 December 1993, in Brunnen, Switzerland.


Heidi Bucher attended the School of Applied Arts in Zurich from 1942 to 1946 before moving to Los Angeles in the 1960s. Known for her inventive, ethereal latex sculptures, her early work centred on investigations of private, domestic spaces and the body. For several sculpted works in the early 1970s she dipped clothing, primarily women’s undergarments, into a mixture of latex and mother of pearl, creating hardened, skin-like artefacts that served as a feminist commentary on the bodily restrictions imposed on the female body. She collaborated with her husband, Carl Bucher, on Landings to Wear and Bodyshells – a series of wearable sculptures (exhibited at the Museum of Contemporary Craft in New York and Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 1972).

In the mid-1970s, Bucher returned to Switzerland. She commenced a sculptural series cast from objects and architectural elements, which she called ...


American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1965, in Melrose (Massachusetts).


Will Cotton received his Bachelor of Fine Arts at Cooper Union, New York, in 1987. While attending school, he spent a semester abroad at the École Regionale des Beaux-Arts in Rouen, and then studied at the New York Academy of Art from 1987 to 1988.

In the early 1990s Cotton frequently included pop culture icons like the Nestlé Quik Bunny and the McDonalds Hamburglar in his work, alluding to American consumerism and the corporately fabricated desires that people were tempted with and bombarded by through advertisements. By the mid-1990s Cotton was moving away from easily recognisable mascots. He began relying more heavily on images of desserts in his work, treating gluttony and the commodification of confections as a metaphor for substance abuse, which the artist suffered from until he reached sobriety in 2002. In the early 2000s, Cotton began inserting pin-up style images of women into his whimsical dreamscapes. Lust and abundance take the shape of women clothed in billowing pastel sugars and sensuously lounging in landscapes made of frosting, baked goods, candies, and ice cream....


Polish, 20th century, female.

Born 1930, in Brześć, Poland.

Sculpture, drawing, installation.

Kraków Group II (established under that name in 1957; joined 1967).

Wanda Czelkowska’s artistic practice combines the disciplines of semantics, geometry, and philosophy. In her sculptural constructions and spatial installations she aims to address issues of relationships and perceptions between objects and the world as well as the position of humans and the audience.

Between 1949 and 1954, Czelkowska studied sculpture at the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków. During this period under the tutelage of Jerzy Bandura (1915–1987) and Xawery Dunikowski (1875–1964) she worked on public sculptures of monumental scale.

In 1963, Czelkowska had her first solo exhibition at the Krzysztofory Gallery in Kraków. This gallery was the preferred venue for artists associated with the Second Kraków Group, a collective the artist joined in 1967.

In later years the artist’s intellectual mission was influenced by the writings of the French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty (...


Holiday Powers

Decolonization refers to the process of achieving independence for formerly colonized nation-states, as a political process and as a cultural rejection of either the specific colonizer or the broader Eurocentric mentality that undergirds colonialism. It claims political, intellectual, and cultural liberation. Decolonization is not the single moment of independence but the longer process of re-making and re-imagining culture and institutions, and it is thereby often rooted in struggle and taken on as a praxis. It can be used as a temporal term to refer to the period following liberation struggles and independence from European colonizers, especially in the 1950s and 1960s. Newly independent countries came together in solidarity at significant meetings such as the Bandung Conference (1955) and the Conference of the Non-Aligned Countries (1961). Decolonization is also used in the present day to refer to ongoing struggles against the Eurocentric foundations of cultural institutions and knowledge production....


American, 20th century, female.

Born 1933, in East Chicago, Indiana.

Performance artist, painter, photographer, feminist activist.

WAC (Women’s Action Coalition).

Mary Beth Edelson is a pioneer feminist art practitioner and a socially engaged artist. Along with Carolee Schneeman, Judy Chicago, and Rachel Rosenthal, Edelson is categorised as a ‘first-generation feminist artist’. Art is the conduit of her political convictions. A prolific artist and author, Edelson is known for ritual performative and participatory works, large-scale collage installations and boxed assemblage, murals, photography, sculpture, drawing, and printing.

Edelson attended DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana and graduated in 1955. A defining moment in the artist’s early career occurred during the senior-year student exhibition when faculty members removed her paintings from the show on the grounds that the works were deemed ‘degrading…to ministers and small children [sic]’. As a campus-wide protest grew so did the artist’s conviction to challenge traditional ideas of conventionality and authority....


Nicholas Miller

American philanthropic organization supporting African American art from 1922 to 1967. Real estate mogul William Elmer Harmon created the William E. Harmon Foundation, or the Harmon Foundation, in 1922 to promote African American self-determination and community building, and to recognize outstanding individual achievement within African American communities. While an early focus of the organization was constructing recreational spaces such as playgrounds in Black communities and offering financial assistance to college students with need, the foundation is primarily known for their annual award celebrations. In 1926 the foundation created an annual awards program that recognized notable individual achievements within the following fields: literature, music, fine arts, business and industry, science and innovation, education, religious service, and race relations. The award winners typically received a gold medal, monetary gift, and widespread recognition in the Black press.

The awards and the recognition played an integral role in helping to support and publicize visual artists emerging during the ...


Lisa Farrington

(b New Orleans, LA, Jan 9, 1811; d New Orleans, LA, 1844).

American painter. Hudson was active in New Orleans in the 1830s. From a well-to-do family, Hudson was the son of John Thomas Hudson, a British merchant, and Desirée Marcos, an affluent woman of color. Hudson trained as an artist in the US and Paris, painting theater sets, miniatures, and larger portraits. In New Orleans he studied with Italian miniaturist and limner Antonio Meucci (fl. 1818–1837) and in Paris with neoclassical painter Alexandre Abel de Pujol, a student of famed neoclassical artist Jacques-Louis David. Hudson traveled and studied abroad from 1829 to 1837, supported in part by an inheritance from his grandmother, Françoise Leclerc, of $100 (about $2800 in 2022 dollars).

Meucci’s style was markedly neoclassical—linear, with limited modeling, a shallow configuration of space, and a dedication to detail. This description suits the work of Hudson as well, exemplified by Portrait of a Man (So-Called Self-Portrait) (...


German, 21st century, female.

Born 1978, in Gießen, Germany.

Choreographer, performance artist, draughtsman, painter, sculptor.

Anne Imhof attended the Academy of Art and Design, Offenbach, in 2003, as well as the Städelschule in Meisterschülerin. She studied with Judith Hopf in Frankfurt am Main in 2012. Although she only began exhibiting her work in 2010, Imhof has experienced a meteoric rise in attention throughout the international art world. She is one of a very select group of artists under the age of 40, including Pierre Huyghe and Fabrice Hyberunder, asked to represent their respective national pavilions at the Venice Biennale. In 2017 she was chosen to represent the German Pavilion; her performance and installation Faust went on to win the Golden Lion for Best National Participation. Imhof was also the recipient of the 2017 Absolut Art Award for Art Work, including a grant of $100,000 to create new artwork, which Imhof plans on using towards an as of yet unspecified project in Death Valley, California....