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Dimitris Plantzos


Greek city situated on the island of Crete, by the north-west foothills of mount Psiloritis (anc. Ida), 30 km south-east of the present-day city of Rethymnon. It was a centre for Aegean and Greek culture from the Prehistoric to the Byzantine periods (4th millennium bc–7th century bc).

Ancient Eleutherna is a typical example of a Cretan polis (city) inhabited continuously from at least from the 9th century bc (the so-called ‘Dark Age’ of Greek history) to the late Roman and Byzantine period (6th–7th century bc). Even before that, archaeological finds suggest the existence of a continuous presence on the site from the late Neolithic (4th millennium bc) through to a flourishing Minoan site of the 3rd to 2nd millennia bc. Although later construction all but eliminated traces of prehistoric architecture, there is still significant evidence to confirm unbroken habitation. In historical times (9th century...


Anna Bentkowska

[Ger. Stettin]

Polish city in western Pomerania at the delta of the River Odra (Ger. Oder) and linked to the Baltic Sea. From the 10th century it was known as an important trade centre: excavated Byzantine, Arabic and English coins as well as jewellery confirm the extent of contacts. Excavations also show that Szczecin originated, typically for the Slav countries, as two settlements: the ruler’s seat located on the hill and the village, encircled by defensive earthworks with three gates, on the west bank of the Odra. A dependency, at different times, of the Holy Roman Empire, Denmark and Poland, Szczecin was ruled until 1637 by locally established princes. When, in 1237, the charter was granted to Szczecin, the town was already well developed and organized, with a population of over 5000. It had a regular street network, timber houses and three churches: two were built as a direct result of the Christian missions of Otto of Bamberg in ...