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M. N. Sokolov


(b Feodosiya [now Kaffa], July 29, 1817; d Feodosiya, June 2, 1900).

Russian painter of Armenian descent. The son of an Armenian merchant, throughout his life he kept his links with the ancient traditions of Armenian Christian culture. He studied at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, in 1833–7 under Maksim Vorob’yov (1787–1855), a prominent Russian landscape painter of the Romantic period. From 1845 Ayvazovsky worked predominantly in Feodosiya, an ancient city in the Eastern Crimea. He travelled widely in Russia and Europe, the Near East, Africa and America. Ayvazovsky’s first significant paintings testify to his attentive assimilation of the canons of Romantic seascape painting, going back to Claude Lorrain, as well as the influence of Vorob’yov and the late works of Sil’vestr Shchedrin. In Ayvazovsky’s early works the accurate rendering of views is combined with a classicist rationality of composition, as in View of the Seashore in the Environs of St Petersburg (1835; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.)

A purely Romantic view of the world and exaltation in the face of the boundless, eternally changing sea find mature expression in the works of the 1840s, when Ayvazovsky gained renown throughout Europe. A number of foreign academies made him an honorary member, and J. M. W. Turner wrote an enthusiastic ode in honour of one of his pictures. The best-known work of this period is the ...


Ernst Haverkamp

(b Skien, Telemark, May 1, 1827; d Düsseldorf, July 8, 1852).

Norwegian painter, active in Germany. From a well-to-do family, he studied at Christiania (now Oslo) Universitet and then became a private pupil of Hans Fredrik Gude before going to Düsseldorf in 1846; he spent the rest of his life there, except for summer visits to Norway and a longer stay in Christiania (1848–9). Johann Wilhelm Schirmer’s traditional technique and Dutch landscape art were important influences. In contrast to other Norwegian Düsseldorf painters, Cappelen was not especially attracted by mountain scenery. His most successful work, Waterfall in Lower Telemark (1852; Oslo, N.G.), probably developed from sketches made in 1851. The waterfall runs diagonally through the picture, and the mist hangs low over the wooded hillside that frames the scene. The diminutive figures of men working logs over the falls create a romantic contrast with the monumentality of the natural surroundings.

Melancholy pervades Cappelen’s paintings despite the happy and lively nature apparent in his correspondence. His great unfinished work, ...


Roman Prahl

(b Prague, Aug 1, 1830; d Paris, April 23, 1878).

Czech painter. After entering the Prague Academy of Fine Arts to study under Christian Ruben (1805–75) in 1848, he went on to study under Gustaf Wappers at the Antwerp Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in 1849 and under Louis Gallait in Brussels and Paris from 1850 to 1855, thus becoming one of the first Bohemian artists to absorb Belgian and French influence. He made his name as a history painter (The Counter-Reformation, 1854; Hussites Defending a Farm Track, 1857; both Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes), rendering subjects from Bohemia’s history. Besides returning for material to his homeland and to Slovakia, he travelled in southern Slav regions. Čermák depicted resistance there to Turkish rule in a Romantic manner for a receptive public in the salons of Paris and Brussels. Other works took their subjects from contemporary folk life, for example Dalmatian Wedding (1875–7; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also painted a number of portraits, landscapes and still-lifes, both in southern Europe and in Normandy. Much of Čermák’s work was a typical mixture of certain trends of late Romanticism, French realist painting of the ...


Vidar Poulsson

(Peter Frantz Wilhelm)

(b Skanshagen at Elverum, July 19, 1849; d Baerum, Jan 15, 1929).

Norwegian painter and designer. He trained as a landscape painter at the art school in Christiania (after 1877 Kristiania, now Oslo) run by J. F. Eckersberg and his followers from 1870 to 1874. He travelled widely throughout his career but was most attracted to eastern Norway, where he had been born. His first ambition was to paint in a realistic style that would also accommodate impulses from fantasy and literature. During the winters of 1874–5 and 1875–6 he visited his relative the painter Ludvig Munthe at Düsseldorf and was impressed by his work. An Autumn Landscape (1876; Bergen, Meyers Saml.) was Gerhard Munthe’s first major painting. During a long stay at Munich (1877–82) he studied the Old Masters as well as contemporary art. He painted about 70 oils, mainly dark in tone but quite varied in content. They are largely based on impressions of the coastal towns or interior of Norway rather than being inspired by German motifs. ...


Hans-Olof Boström


(b Malmö, Sept 13, 1835; d Malmö, Oct 11, 1933).

Swedish painter. He lodged with and was a pupil of the Danish landscape painter Frederik Christian Kiærskou (1805–91), and at the same time he studied at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1852–5). In 1857 he moved to the Akademi för de Fria Konsterna in Stockholm. Like several other Swedish artists of his generation he studied at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf (1859–64). His teacher there was the Norwegian Hans Gude, who was professor of landscape painting and whose strong influence can be seen in several landscapes including Swedish Landscape (1863; Göteborg, Kstmus.), which was painted in Düsseldorf. Rydberg lived in various parts of Sweden, chiefly in Stockholm, and he settled permanently in his native province of Skåne in 1897. His early landscapes were Romantic, in the Düsseldorf tradition, but in about 1870 he became one of the first plein-air painters of Sweden. He has been called ‘the artistic discoverer of Skåne’, for his impressive depictions of the lowland expanses of Skåne with their wide skies. He preferred simple themes, as in ...


Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(Caroline Sophie)

(b Jena, May 15, 1786; d Weimar, Oct 7, 1866).

German painter. She began her training in Gotha and Jena and in 1810–11 she studied in Dresden at the Akademie under Christian Leberecht Vogel and Gerhard von Kügelgen. In 1817 she studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich under Robert von Langer. Early in her career she was in demand for her copies of Italian Renaissance masters and also as a portrait painter, mostly in pastel. Among her early portraits is one of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1811; Weimar, Goethe-Wohnhaus), whose friendship and encouragement were important to her. From 1816 onwards she worked on an altarpiece in oils for the Rochuskapelle near Bingen, Rheinland-Pfalz, St Roch on his Wanderings (1817; in situ). With Goethe’s help, she received stipends for visits to Munich and Italy from Charles Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1757–1828). In Rome, between 1818 and 1823 she moved in the circle of the Lukasbrüder (...


Tone Skedsmo

(b Christiania [Kristiania from 1877; now Oslo], Nov 29, 1869; d Oslo, June 19, 1935).

Norwegian painter and printmaker. Sohlberg decided to be a painter when young, but his father wished him to follow a thorough training as a craftsman. Sohlberg therefore enrolled at the Royal School of Drawing in Kristiania in 1885 under the interior designer Wilhelm Krogh (1829–1913) and stayed at the school until 1890. Subsequently, he attended night classes under the graphic artist and painter Johan Nordhagen (1856–1956) both in the autumn of 1906 and also from 1911 to 1917, when he concentrated on printmaking. Sohlberg painted his first pictures while staying in the Valdrés region to the north-west of Kristiania in summer 1889. The following summer he painted with Sven Jørgensen (1861–1940) at Slagen near Åsgårdstrand, and in autumn 1891 he was a pupil of Erik Werenskiold and Eilif Peterssen in Kristiania. For some months during the winter of 1891–2 Sohlberg attended Kristian Zahrtmann’s art school in Copenhagen. He also studied for four months in ...


Jutta von Simson

(b Berlin, Aug 14, 1776; d Berlin, May 12, 1851).

German sculptor. He was initially apprenticed to Christian Friedrich Heinrich Siegismund Bettkober (1746–1809), while simultaneously attending drawing-classes at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin under Johann Gottfried Schadow, to whose studio he moved in 1794. His brother Ludwig Tieck (1773–1853), the Romantic poet, introduced him to the literary circle of the Romantics. From 1798 he spent three years in Paris, where he entered Louis David’s studio. In 1801, on his return journey, he met Goethe in Weimar and sculpted his portrait bust (Weimar, Goethe-Nmus. Frauenplan). Through Goethe’s mediation, he received the commission for decorative relief panels (e.g. the Prince as Protector of the Arts and Sciences, 1801–5; all in situ) for the Schloss in Weimar. In 1805 he won a scholarship to Rome, where he met Christian Daniel Rauch and they began a friendship that would be decisive for the future direction of Tieck’s life. In Carrara between ...


Leif Østby

( Theodor )

(b Vinger, Feb 11, 1855; d Oslo, Nov 23, 1938).

Norwegian painter, draughtsman and printmaker . He studied in Christiania (later Kristiania, now Oslo) in 1873–5 under Julius Middelthun, who discovered his unusual gift for drawing, and then at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1876–9). Among his early paintings, Female Half-nude (1877; Bergen, Billedgal.) is typical in revealing an interest in individual personality and psychology even in a traditional academic subject. In 1878, while on a visit to Kristiania, Werenskiold met the collector and editor Peter Christien Asbjørnsen (1812–85) and was engaged as an illustrator for his new edition of Norwegian fairy tales (Kristiania, 1879). Together with Theodor Kittelsen, he continued to contribute illustrations to Absjørnsen’s publications. In his drawings for tales such as De Kongsdøtre i berget det blå (‘The three princesses in the mountain-in-the-blue’; Kristiania, 1887), he achieved a striking combination of realistic observation, fantasy and humour, his imaginary creatures being especially successful. During the 1880s Werenskiold was also active as a painter. He left Munich early in ...