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Magne Malmanger


(b Bergen, Feb 24, 1788; d Dresden, Oct 14, 1857).

Norwegian painter and collector, active in Germany. His paintings, imbued with Romantic and patriotic sentiments, had a strong influence on the landscape tradition both in Germany (especially Dresden) and in his native Norway.

He was apprenticed from 1803 to 1809 to a house painter and interior decorator in Bergen and during this time took private drawing lessons. His artistic talent was soon recognized, and a group of prosperous Bergen citizens paid for him to study at the Kunstakademi (Academy of Art) in Copenhagen, where he remained from 1811 to about 1817, from 1813 teaching at the painting school of C. A. Lorentzen (1749–1828). While benefiting from the disciplined Academy course, Dahl also studied independently, copying from other works, especially those of Dutch painters, and sketching frequently from nature. He made copies partly to earn a living but also for what he could learn of both technique and the approach to the painting of architecture and, especially, of landscape. Jan Both and Claude Lorrain influenced his early ‘Italianate’ pictures, while he based his ‘Norwegian’ works on Jacob van Ruisdael, Meindert Hobbema and Allaert van Everdingen. These models also had some influence on Dahl’s sketches directly from nature, which were generally made in and around Copenhagen, although occasionally during excursions further afield. While Dutch work, for example the paintings of Aert van der Neer, seems to have inspired such works as ...


Marianne Grivel

(b Paris, 1561; d Paris, c. 1635).

French engraver, draughtsman, print publisher and dealer. He was the son of the goldsmith Pierre Gaultier, but probably not, as has been stated, the son-in-law of Antoine Caron and brother-in-law of Thomas de Leu. His first dated engravings (1576; Linzeler, 13–120) form part of a suite of 108 plates illustrating the New Testament. He was a very prolific engraver—his output reached at least 985 prints—and treated various genres, producing religious engravings, allegories, coats of arms and above all portraits and book illustrations. Although he copied the suite of engravings by Agostino dei Musi and B. Daddi after Raphael’s fresco cycle the Loves of Cupid and Psyche in the Farnesina, Rome (l 163–95), most of his work was from his own drawings. His work was published by a number of print publishers: Pierre Gourdelle (fl 1555–88) and, in 1591, by his wife (e.g. the Salvator Mundi, l...


David Rodgers

(b Wormsley Grange, Hereford & Worcs, Feb 11, 1751; d London, April 23, 1824).

English writer, connoisseur and collector (see fig.). He was the son of a clergyman from a wealthy dynasty of iron-masters. His father died in 1764, and shortly afterwards he inherited a considerable estate from his uncle, which ensured his financial independence. He was a sickly child and was educated at home, becoming well versed in Classical history, Latin and Greek. In 1772 he travelled in France and Italy and was abroad again in 1776, touring Switzerland with the landscape painter John Robert Cozens. The following year he travelled to Sicily on an archaeological expedition taking with him the painters Philipp Hackert and his pupil, the amateur artist Charles Gore (1729–1807). Knight kept a detailed journal (Weimar, Goethe- & Schiller-Archv) illustrated by his companions and on his return to England commissioned Cozens and Thomas Hearne to paint watercolours (London, BM) from Hackert’s and Gore’s sketches (London, BM). It seems probable that the journal was intended for publication and that the expedition may have had an entrepreneurial aspect, as archaeology was a fashionable subject and the Sicilian sites largely unexplored....


Leonée Ormond

(b Bristol, April 13, 1769; d London, Jan 7, 1830).

English painter and collector. He was the finest portrait painter of his generation in Europe and the last English inheritor of the legacy of van Dyck. His technical facility and rapid and enormous public success should not obscure the originality and self-consciousness of his imagination. He also formed a superb collection of Old Master drawings.

An attractive child, he was one of the youngest of a large family. His early life was dominated by the personality of his lazy and improvident father, who was innkeeper from 1772 of the Black Bear at Devizes, Wilts, an inn popular with travellers to the fashionable spa at Bath. He was encouraged to entertain his father’s customers, first by giving recitations, and then, when an aptitude for drawing declared itself, by sketching pencil portraits. Those of Lloyd Kenyon and Mary Kenyon, later 1st Baron and Lady Kenyon (both Lord Kenyon priv. col., see 1979...


Roberta J. M. Olson

(b Bologna, 15 May ?1775–7; d Turin, March 6, 1860).

Italian painter, architect, designer and collector. At the age of 12 he began to frequent the house in Bologna of his patron Conte Carlo Filippo Aldrovandi Marescotti (1763–1823), whose collections and library provided his early artistic education and engendered his taste for collecting. From 1795 he worked on several decorative schemes with the theatre designer and decorator Antonio Basoli (1774–1848), and it was perhaps in theatre designs that Palagi was first exposed to an eclectic range of motifs from exotic cultures. He was influenced by the linear, mannered style of Felice Giani, with whom he frequented the important evening drawing sessions at the house of the engraver Francesco Rosaspina (1762–1841). Beginning in 1802, he participated in the informal Accademia della Pace, Bologna, as well as studying at the Accademia Clementina, and was elected to the Accademia Nazionale di Belle Arti of Bologna in 1803...


Marie-Claude Chaudonneret

(b Lyon, June 12, 1776; d Lyon, March 19, 1842).

French painter and collector. He entered the Ecole de Dessin in Lyon around 1791 as a pupil of Alexis Grognard (1752–1840). He then became a designer in a wallpaper factory. In 1795 he began working in Jacques-Louis David’s studio, where, with Fleury Richard, Comte Auguste de Forbin, François-Marius Granet and Louis Ducis, he belonged to what David’s pupils called the ‘parti aristocratique’. In 1800 he published with Forbin, who remained a friend, a comedy that was performed at the Théâtre du Vaudeville, Sterne à Paris, ou le voyageur sentimental. In 1802, on the occasion of the laying of the first stone of the Place Bellecoeur in Lyon by the First Consul, Révoil executed a large and elaborately allegorical drawing, Bonaparte Rebuilding the Town of Lyon (preparatory drawings, Paris, Louvre, and Lyon, Mus. B.-A.), which was the basis for a painting exhibited in the Salon of 1804 (destr. by the artist, ...


(b Paris, July 6, 1782; d Paris, May 15, 1859).

French painter, lithographer and collector. Born into a distinguished military family, he inherited from his father a talent for painting, which was encouraged by the Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier, who sent him to Switzerland (1802–3) and then to Italy (1807–8). Turpin de Crissé exhibited for the first time at the Salon of 1806, showing René’s Farewell (sold London, Sotheby’s, 25 Nov 1981), a romantic subject taken from Chateaubriand’s René, and a View of the Temple of Minerva at Athens (untraced), which had probably been commissioned by Choiseul-Gouffier. He was welcomed into Napoleon’s court as the protégé of Queen Hortense and later of the Empress Josephine, to whom he became chamberlain in 1809. He accompanied her to Switzerland and Savoy in 1810, returning with an album of 33 sepia drawings (Malmaison, Château N.) that express a delightful ‘troubadour’ feeling for nature.

His landscapes were highly prized—the View taken from Civita Castellana...