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T. L. Ingram and Francis Russell

English family of merchants, bankers, politicians, collectors and patrons. John Baring (1697–1748) came from a Lutheran family in Bremen and settled in Exeter, Devon, in 1717. The success of his clothmaking business enabled him to acquire a large house, Larkbeare, and landed estate on the outskirts of the city. His portrait was painted by William Hoare (c. 1740s) and that of his wife, Elizabeth Baring (1702–66), by Gainsborough (c. 1750s; both London, Barings PLC). John Baring’s son (1) Sir Francis Baring, created 1st Baronet in 1793, was a merchant and financier and founder in 1762 of Baring Brothers in London, which became Baring Brothers & Co. Ltd. Francis had three sons who were partners in the firm: (2) Sir Thomas Baring (i), 2nd Baronet, (3) Alexander Baring, created 1st Baron Ashburton in 1835, and Henry Baring (1776–1848). Thomas Baring (i)’s sons included ...


James Bugslag


(fl ?1363; d Paris, 1398–9).

French tapestry-weaver and textile dealer. He was one of the most successful of several French luxury textile merchants based mainly in Paris and Arras during the late 14th century and the only one whose work is known to have survived. He was a citizen of Paris and is referred to variously as a weaver of high-warp tapestries, a merchant of tapis sarrazinois, and, more generally, a merchant. His second wife, Marguerite de Verdun, who came from a family of weavers in Troyes, continued his business after his death with his son Jean (b c. 1371). Bataille worked for some of the most distinguished aristocratic clients of the French court from at least 1373 (and perhaps as early as 1363). References to his workshop are few, however, and the range and scope of his activities make it clear that he more commonly acted as a middleman, negotiating often sizable commissions (sometimes involving extended payment schedules), farming out work to individual workshops, buying textiles from as far away as Arras and Caen, and occasionally delivering goods as far away as Bruges. He became rich and, at least by ...


Cassandra Gero

(b Venice, July 1, 1922).

French couturier, ready-to-wear designer and entrepreneur. Cardin is known for space-age style fashions in the 1960s, pioneering the ready-to-wear market and extensive licensing of his name (see fig.).

Cardin was born in Italy, but his family moved to France when he was two years old. He worked as a menswear tailor in Vichy, then as an accountant for the Red Cross during World War II. He later moved to Paris, where he was employed as an assistant at the couture houses of Jeanne Paquin, Elsa Schiaparelli and Christian Dior. Cardin helped execute Dior’s design of the famous ‘Bar’ suit for his inaugural ‘New Look’ collection in 1947. In 1950 he started his own business and designed costumes for theatre productions, including Jean Cocteau’s Beauty and the Beast. In 1953, he began designing small couture collections for women. At the time his fashions were similar to those of other Paris ...


(b London, Jan 3, 1817; d Richmond Hill, Surrey, Feb 17, 1901).

Merchant and collector. Cook became a partner in his father’s huge and successful textile manufacturing and wholesaling firm in 1843; on the death of his father in 1869, he became its head. During his professional life he was also one of the principal collectors of antique Greek and Roman sculpture in the Victorian period, acquiring his antiques mostly at auction between 1855 and 1870, at a time when such Neo-classical assemblages were beginning to go out of fashion. His marble sculptures, more than 80 in number, were displayed partly at his residence in Portugal (see Sintra) and partly in a private house museum at Doughty House, Richmond Hill, Surrey. They included fine examples such as the Venus Mazarin (now Malibu, CA, Getty Mus.), a good selection of Hellenistic Greek funerary reliefs and several Roman sarcophagi. When the collection was finally dispersed in 1947, the best pieces were divided between the ...


Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...


Jonas Gavel

(b Göteborg, Oct 5, 1827; d Göteborg, April 10, 1902).

Swedish collector and patron. He came from a Jewish merchant family in Göteborg where he managed a textile company with his brother Arthur and cousin Ludwig. He was also active in liberal politics. His art gallery (c. 1885), designed by Adrian Petterson (1835–1912) and installed in the attic of his house, was open to the public, in accordance with his democratic principles. His collecting was in part a way to achieve social acceptance. During the 1870s he bought such conventional works as those by the artists of the Düsseldorf school of genre painting, including Bengt Nordenberg’s In the Organ Loft (1868; Göteborg, Kstmus.). Although an honorary member of the Kungliga Akademi för de fria Konsterna, in the 1880s he actively supported the modernist group Opponenterna (The Opponents), led by Ernst Josephson, who disagreed with the practices of the Akademi. He brought Carl Larsson to Göteborg to teach non-traditional methods of drawing and painting at the Göteborgs Museum’s school (now the Valands Målarskola) and he commissioned from him such large paintings as the triptych ...


(b Barcelona, Dec 15, 1847; d Barcelona, July 9, 1918).

Catalan industrialist and patron. After completing his studies in England, he returned to Barcelona to head the textile manufacturing company founded by his father, Joan Güell i Ferrer. He strongly supported Catalan nationalism and used his patronage of such Catalan Renaixença figures as the poet Ramón Picó i Campamar, the novelist Robles i Rodríguez Alcántara, the painter Alexis Clapés (1850–1920) and especially the architect Antoni Gaudí, whom he met in 1878, to promote his progressive and paternalist visions of society. The first work by Gaudí for Güell was the gate-house of his finca at Pedralbes, outside Barcelona (1884); the turrets covered with coloured ceramics show Gaudí’s interest in Islamic architecture. The Palau Güell, Güell’s residence in Barcelona (1886–91), is an extraordinary neo-Gothic palace, which contains some of Gaudí’s most innovative interiors. The elaborate wrought-iron ornament of the entrance arches and bay windows is one of the earliest examples of the Catalan ...


Milo Cleveland Beach

(b Bombay, 1902; d New York, 1971).

American dealer of Indian birth. Following the decline of the family textile business, his father, Munchersa Heeramaneck, became an antiquities dealer and shrewdly developed a speciality in Chinese ceramics. As a youth, Nasli was assigned to the New Delhi office, but in 1922 he was sent to Paris to study and open a branch. He soon moved to New York, which became the final location for Heeramaneck Galleries. In 1939 Heeramaneck married Alice Arvine, an American portrait painter from New Haven, and she became an active partner in the business. They were responsible for the acquisition of many great works of Indian, Tibetan and Nepali sculpture, Mughal and Rajput painting, Ancient Near Eastern and Islamic art, and Central Asian (including nomadic) art by major American museums. They also formed a comprehensive private collection of South Asian art, including superlative paintings and sculptures from the Himalayan regions, and a smaller collection of ancient Near Eastern and Islamic art, both purchased by the ...



Athena S. E. Leoussi

British family of patrons of Greek origin. Constantine Ioannou Ipliktzis (b Constantinople [now Istanbul], 1775; d Athens, 1852) was the founder of the family fortune. In the 1820s he settled in Manchester, where he established himself as a textile merchant. His eldest son, Alexander Constantine Ionides (b Constantinople, 1 Sept 1810; d Hastings, E. Sussex, 10 Nov 1890), changed the family name to Ionides. He settled in Manchester, where he founded the firm Ionides & Co. in 1833. The following year he moved to London, where he served as Consul-General for Greece (1854–66) and as a director of the Crystal Palace. Alexander patronized several artists, in particular G. F. Watts, who became the chief portrait painter of the family. From the 1860s, influenced by his son Aleco, Alexander extended his patronage to Whistler, George Du Maurier, Edward John Poynter, Alphonse Legros and Henri Fantin-Latour, who were frequent guests in his house. On his death his collection was distributed to his children, with the exception of ...


(b Paris, Nov 29, 1686; d Paris, March 20, 1766).

French textile manufacturer, collector and amateur engraver. He was the nephew of François de Jullienne, a cloth merchant, and of Jean Glucq, a celebrated dyer for the Gobelins factory in Paris, and in 1721 he merged their successful businesses. As a young man he studied drawing with Jean-François de Troy, and engraving with François Boucher and Girard Audran, and he was friendly with François Lemoyne and with Antoine Watteau, whose Portrait of a Gentleman (Paris, Louvre) has been said to be of Jullienne. Shortly before his death Watteau presented Jullienne with a large number of his drawings; Jullienne eventually owned more than 500 of Watteau’s drawings. In 1726 he published Figures de différents caractères de paysages et d’études, dessinés d’après nature par Antoine Watteau, a volume of engravings by major artists after all the drawings by Watteau then known (Jullienne himself provided 12 plates). In 1736 Jullienne was ennobled and created a Chevalier of the Order of St Michel; in that same year he published four volumes of the ...



French collectors and patrons. Pierre Lévy (b Guebwiller, Haut-Rhin, 11 April 1907; d 25 March 2002), an industrialist specializing in textiles, and his wife Denise Lévy (née Lièvre) donated in 1976 a substantial part of their collection of c. 4000 works of art and objets d’art to the Musées Nationaux de France. Housed in the Musée d’Art Moderne, Troyes, in the old bishop’s residence, the gift includes 337 paintings, 1277 drawings, 104 sculptures, 1 print, another 157 works of art and 81 pieces of African art. The Lévys collected over a period of 40 years, acquiring many works directly from artists with whom they were friends as much as patrons. In addition to works of art, they also collected artists’ letters. The collection focuses on French art from c. 1880 to the mid–1970s; it is particularly strong on the work of the Fauves, although it also includes work by Cubist artists and works from the mid-19th century. The collection includes four bronzes by ...


David Prout

(b Leeds, Sept 20, 1803; d Bradford, Dec 21, 1876).

English textile manufacturer and philanthropist. The son of Daniel Salt, a merchant and manufacturer of Wakefield, Yorks, he learnt his trade in the mills of Bradford. He achieved commercial success by pioneering the use of alpaca hair for textile manufacture in England. From 1851 to 1853 he constructed a massive mill, three miles north of Bradford on the River Aire above Shipley, at what became Saltaire, designed by the Bradford partnership of H. F. Lockwood (1811–78) and Richard Mawson (1834–1904). Around it Salt built a model industrial town, also to the designs of Lockwood and Mawson. Saltaire was planned on a regular grid of streets, and houses of different grades were Italianate in style. By 1854 there were 150 houses, by 1872 there were 820. Other facilities including a public dining-hall and Congregational Church (1859), schools, a public bath and wash house (1868...




Joost Vander Auwera

(b Mechelen, 1544 [acc. to his epitaph] or 1549 [acc. to van Mander]; d Antwerp, Oct 1, 1638).

Flemish painter, draughtsman, tapestry designer and art dealer. He was the son of Daniel Snellinck (fl 1531–44), a painter and pedlar, and Cornelia Verhulst, who was related to the Bruegel family. He probably trained with his father in Mechelen, where watercolour painting (waterverfschilderen) was a speciality. They both worked for Peter Ernst, Graf von Mansfeld, and painted battle scenes, the genre for which Jan was particularly praised by van Mander, although no examples have survived. On 10 July 1574 Jan married Helena de Jode, daughter of Gerard de Jode (i), the Antwerp engraver and print publisher; his pupils are mentioned in the Antwerp guild’s records from 1577–8, but he became a citizen of Antwerp only on 27 June 1596. However, he is known to have been living there in 1584–5, at which time he was a Calvinist (though he later completely abandoned his Reformist tendencies).

Snellinck’s earliest known works are the drawings for prints in the ...


Francis Russell



Teresa del Conde

revised by Deborah Caplow

(b Juchitán, Oaxaca, Jul 17, 1940).

Mexican painter, sculptor, textile designer, printmaker, and collector. He grew up in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, an area that was rich in legends, rites, and beliefs springing from a strong Zapotec tradition predating the Spanish conquest of Mexico. He began to draw and paint at a very early age, studying first in Oaxaca, where he produced linocuts in the graphic workshop run by Arturo García Bustos (1926–2017). In 1957 he moved to Mexico City to attend the Escuela de Diseño y Artesanía of the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes. After holding his first solo shows of gouaches and prints in 1959 in Fort Worth, Texas, and Mexico City, he moved in 1960 to Paris, where until 1963 he studied printmaking under Stanley William Hayter. While continuing to work within Western traditions, he became interested in the art of Asian cultures and in ancient Mexican art, especially in those forms that were not officially sanctioned....


Jeremy Howard


(b Moscow, Dec 27, 1832; d Moscow, Dec 16, 1898).

Russian patron, collector, museum founder and curator. A textile magnate, he was one of the first merchants to patronize the arts in Russia. In 1851, after his marriage to Vera Mamontova, the niece of the industrialist Savva Mamontov, the founder of the artistic colony at Abramtsevo, he bought a large mansion in Moscow and began to collect art. Initially he bought western European engravings and 17th-century Dutch paintings, but after seeing the Russian works in Illarion Pryanishnikov’s collection in St Petersburg, he switched to Russian art. He collected icons and 18th- and 19th-century works, as well as, most importantly, becoming the main patron of the group that became known as Wanderers. He appreciated both the Academy of Art in St Petersburg and its rebels. Less concerned with social and moral issues than Vladimir Stasov, who frequently sought his patronage for the Wanderers, his outlook was essentially ethnocentric Slavophile. Diluting the Wanderers’ original instinct to reform, he favoured realist landscapes and religious paintings with exclusively devotional content. He commissioned much of their most important work (e.g. ...