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Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Hanau, March 13, 1763; d Aachen, May 18, 1823).

German painter and dealer. He was taught to draw by his father, Jean Jacques Bury (1731–85), a goldsmith and engraver born in Strasbourg, who also taught at the Hanau Zeichnenakademie. After taking painting lessons from Anton Wilhelm Tischbein (1730–1804), in 1780 Bury attended the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf, where he practised copying from the work of the Old Masters, especially Peter Paul Rubens, in the gallery belonging to the Elector Palatine Charles Theodore. In 1782 Bury went to Italy with his friend Heinrich Lips (1758–1817), a copperplate-engraver, staying until 1799. His contented and enthusiastic character endeared him to the German artists in Rome, and he became especially close to Wilhelm Tischbein, nephew of his former painting teacher, who introduced him to Goethe in 1786. Goethe often subsequently referred to Bury as a ‘child’ and bought many of the drawings and watercolours based on the work of Raphael, Michelangelo and other Old Masters that Bury produced in Rome (Weimar, Goethe-Nmus.). In turn Goethe recommended Bury to ...


Marco Collareta

[Foppa, Cristoforo]

(b Mondonico, nr Pavia, c. 1452; d between Dec 6, 1526 and April 1, 1527).

Italian goldsmith, coin- and gem-engraver, jeweller, medallist and dealer. Son of the goldsmith Gian Maffeo Foppa, from 1480 he served at the Milanese court with his father, eventually becoming personal goldsmith and jeweller to Ludovico Sforza (il Moro), Duke of Milan. In 1487 Caradosso was in Florence, where his appraisal of an antique cornelian was highly esteemed. He worked in Hungary in the service of King Matthias Corvinus, probably in August 1489; a later visit to the court was cut short by the King’s death (1490). Between 1492 and 1497 Caradosso travelled to various Italian towns to buy jewels and other precious objects for Ludovico il Moro. He visited Rome, Viterbo and Florence early in 1496, when the Medici family’s possessions were sold off after the expulsion of Piero de’ Medici (1471–1503) from Florence.

After the fall of Ludovico il Moro in 1500, Caradosso remained for some years in Lombardy. In ...


French, 18th century, male.

Born in Sedan (Ardennes); died 1720, in Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Medallist, engraver, printer, art dealer.

Nicolas Chevalier took refuge in the Netherlands after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, which restricted the liberties of Huguenots. He lived in Amsterdam and Utrecht....


Stephen Clarke

English family of silversmiths, industrialists, collectors, and patrons, of French origin. The family originated from the town of St Pierre on the Ile d’Oléron off La Rochelle. They arrived in London a few years after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and between 1708 and 1780 three generations of Courtauld silversmiths were registered at the Goldsmiths’ Company. Augustine Courtauld (c.1686–c. 1751) was apprenticed to Simon Pantin in 1701 and, after becoming a freeman of the Goldsmiths’ Company in 1708, he started a business as a plateworker in Church Court, off St Martin’s Lane in London. The majority of his work is of high quality, for example a silver tea-table (1742; St Petersburg, Hermitage) and the state salt of the Corporation of the City of London (1730; London, Mansion House). Augustine’s brother Pierre Courtauld (1690–1729) registered a mark in 1721...


(b Somerset, c. 1753; d London, Jan 12, 1841).

English art dealer, painter and medallist. He spent much of his early life in Italy and in 1774 was in Rome, where he was detained by the French during their war with Naples. While in Italy he studied and made copies of paintings, and he also made portrait medallions showing only the head of the sitter. On his return to London in 1800 he worked as a picture dealer, achieving brief public prominence in 1816 when he was called to give evidence before the Parliamentary Committee set up to investigate the merits of the Elgin Marbles. Of the many paintings he bought from abroad several were for the National Gallery, London, including Gaspard Dughet’s Landscape with Abraham and Isaac Approaching the Place of Sacrifice, Raphael’s St Catherine of Alexandria (c. 1507), Correggio’s Ecce homo (late 1520s), Anthony van Dyck’s Emperor Theodosius Forbidden by St Ambrose to Enter Milan Cathedral...


Marie-Claude Chaudonneret

(b Paris, c. 1774; d Paris, bur Dec 3, 1860).

French painter, bronze-founder and collector. He was born into a family of bronze-founders. He studied in Jacques-Louis David’s atelier and on David’s arrest in 1794 accompanied him on his way to prison and with 16 of his fellow students signed an address to the National Convention calling for his master’s release. He exhibited for the first time at the Salon of 1798 both the full-length Portrait of a Man Skating, or the portrait of Bertrand Andrieu (Paris, Hôtel de la Monnaie), a rather stiff and awkward treatment of the subject in comparison with, for instance, Gilbert Stuart’s Skater (1782; Washington, DC, N.G.A.), and the Deluge (Gray, Mus. Martin), inspired by the poems of Salomon Gessner (1730–88) (the episode in which Phanor carries the fainting Semira). Delafontaine considered this painting to be his masterpiece. At the Salon of 1799 he showed the portrait of Alexandre Lenoir, a somewhat gauche, full-length depiction of the creator of the Musée des Monuments Français (Paris, Louvre). The portrait of ...



D. A. Bullough

[Eginhard; Einhart]

(b c. ad 770; d 837).

German patron, writer, and possibly metalworker. He married Emma, sister of Bernharius, Bishop of Worms, and they possibly had a son, Hussin. He received his early education at Fulda Abbey, where he wrote documents between 788 and 791, although he was not ordained or professed as a monk. He then moved to the court at Aachen, which had recently been established, to continue his studies under Alcuin (c. 735–804) and others. His most notable product was the Life of his patron Charlemagne, written in the late 820s. It was after Charlemagne had died that his son Louis the Pious elevated Einhard to the post of private secretary. It was in this post and under Louis’s patronage that he wrote the Vita Karoli Magni, which is still one of the principal sources for much of our knowledge of Charlemagne. Contemporaries recorded his small stature and lively conduct, and his nickname Be(se)leel, after Bezaleel, the worker in precious metals in Exodus 31:2–5....


Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...


(b 1806; d 1862).

Austrian collector. A wealthy landowner, he lived primarily in Vienna, where he was part of the circle of the medallist Johann Daniel Böhm (1794–1865) and the dealer Georg Plach. As an art patron, he was a founding member c. 1850 of the Österreichische Kunstverein. His collection consisted mostly of paintings, drawings and prints by Italian, Netherlandish, Dutch and German Old Masters (e.g. Jacob van Ruisdael’s Wooded Landscape; Vienna, Österreich. Mus. Kst & Ind.), which were acquired from such major collections as that of Balthasar Speth in Munich and those of Adamovic, Graf Georg Apponyi, Baranowsky, Hess, Lechi and Böhm in Vienna. In addition, he also bought important pictures from Italy, including a 14th-century altarpiece from a vestry in Lucca. The collection was sold in 1859 (Vienna, Artaria & Altmann, 7 March) and included 162 paintings. Plach appears to have acquired all of the remaining pictures, although more than 40 paintings from the collection entered the gallery of ...


Marianne Grivel

(b Paris, 1561; d Paris, c. 1635).

French engraver, draughtsman, print publisher and dealer. He was the son of the goldsmith Pierre Gaultier, but probably not, as has been stated, the son-in-law of Antoine Caron and brother-in-law of Thomas de Leu. His first dated engravings (1576; Linzeler, 13–120) form part of a suite of 108 plates illustrating the New Testament. He was a very prolific engraver—his output reached at least 985 prints—and treated various genres, producing religious engravings, allegories, coats of arms and above all portraits and book illustrations. Although he copied the suite of engravings by Agostino dei Musi and B. Daddi after Raphael’s fresco cycle the Loves of Cupid and Psyche in the Farnesina, Rome (l 163–95), most of his work was from his own drawings. His work was published by a number of print publishers: Pierre Gourdelle (fl 1555–88) and, in 1591, by his wife (e.g. the Salvator Mundi, l...


Pascal Griener

(b Aix-en-Provence, June 21, 1752; d Bouleau, Seine-et-Marne, Feb 13, 1830).

French sculptor and writer. He worked for a goldsmith in Paris before devoting himself to sculpture, in which he was self-taught. Thanks to an allowance from an uncle who had adopted him, he was able to study sculpture in Italy in the early 1780s; there he struck up a friendship with Jacques-Louis David. On his return he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in Paris in 1788, and was received (reçu) as a member in the following year. On coming into a fortune, he returned in 1790 to Italy, where he lived until 1793, chiefly in Florence, Rome and Naples. He brought back with him what was the richest collection in France of plaster casts after antique sculpture, which he exhibited to the public at his house in the Place Vendôme, Paris. When, in 1796, Napoleon plundered some of the best-known antique sculptures of Rome, Giraud protested about their removal....



English family of bankers, patrons and collectors. The foundations of the family fortune were laid by Richard Hoare (1648–1718), a goldsmith who set up a banking business in 1672 at the sign of the Golden Bottle, 37 Fleet Street, London. He was knighted in 1702 and elected Lord Mayor of London in 1712. Of his 17 children, his son Henry Hoare the elder (1677–1724) continued the banking business and in 1717 bought property at Stourton, Wilts, thus initiating the family’s connection with the Stourhead estate; he commissioned Colen Campbell to replace the existing building with a Palladian villa (1721–4). This was duly bequeathed to his son (1) Henry Hoare the younger, called the Magnificent, who was responsible for laying out the garden at Stourhead and for building up a notable collection of paintings; he also inherited a partnership in the bank. Henry’s son died while on a Grand Tour in Naples in ...



Harriet Sonne de Torrens

Mainland peninsula of modern-day Denmark and one of the three provinces (Jutland, Zealand and Skåne, southern Sweden) that constituted medieval Denmark. The conversion of the Danes to Christianity initiated a reorganization of the economic, social and legal structures of Denmark that would change the shape of Jutland dramatically between the 11th and 14th centuries. Under Knut the Great, King of Denmark and England (reg 1019–35), Jutland acquired a stable diocesan system (1060) that enabled a systematic collection of tithes and the growth of religious institutions between 1050 and 1250. During this period, agricultural practices changed as manor houses and landed estates were established, producing wealth for the ruling families. Under Valdemar I (reg 1157–82) and Knut VI (reg 1182–1202), Jutland witnessed a great building activity; on Jutland more than 700 stone churches were constructed, some replacing earlier wooden churches, each needing liturgical furnishings. Workshops, such as that of the renowned sculptor Horder and many others, were actively engaged in carving stone baptismal fonts (e.g. Malt, Skodborg, Ut, Stenild), capitals, reliefs (Vestervig, Aalborg) and tympana (Gjøl, Ørsted, Stjaer, Skibet), wooden cult figures, Jutland’s golden altars (Lisbjerg, Sahl, Stadil, Tamdrup) and wall paintings. Evidence of the earliest wall paintings in Jutland, ...


Anne Leclair

(b Paris, 1701; d Paris, 1779).

French collector, goldsmith, draughtsman and engraver. He was a member of a Parisian family of goldsmiths. In 1756 he became an alderman of the city of Paris, an appointment that conferred nobility. He was a great connoisseur who numbered among his friends artists, art dealers and art lovers, including Edmé-François Gersaint, Jean-Georges Wille and Pierre-Jean Mariette, with whom he collaborated in publishing a work on Edme Bouchardon’s equestrian statue of Louis XV (Paris, Place Louis XV; destr.). On Mariette’s death, the King urged Lempereur to purchase for him the whole of his famous collection (see Mariette family, §4); the negotiations broke down, but Lempereur did succeed in buying 1300 drawings (Paris, Louvre).

Lempereur himself also gathered together a superb collection of works of art (1218 items, sold 24 May 1773). The greater part of the drawings from Italy and the Netherlands (such as those by Raphael and ...


Lillian B. Miller

(b New York, April 11, 1819; d New York, Feb 26, 1902).

American businessman, philanthropist, and collector. Born into a family of silversmiths, he first worked in real estate in New York and then moved into banking and investment. In 1874, together with his brother Frederick and other investors, he purchased the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad; from 1875 to 1881 he served as its vice-president and in 1881 as president, and he continued to serve as director of this railroad and its later parent organization, the Missouri Pacific, until his death.

Marquand was a member of the original group of 50 prominent New Yorkers who met in 1869 to plan the organization of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and to raise an endowment. After he had retired in 1881, he was able to devote his energies to civic activities, primarily to the successful development of the Metropolitan. From 1882 to 1889 he served as its treasurer, and from 1889...



Antonio Milone

Italian cathedral city in the province of Salerno, Campania. Ravello has been documented as an urban centre since the 10th century and as a bishopric since 1087. The centre, near the Toro quarter, is high up between the two rivers that separate the city from Scala and Minori. The city’s fortifications were damaged and the city itself was sacked by a Pisan assault in 1135 and in 1137. At the end of the 14th century, its inhabitants also clashed with the neighbouring city of Scala. In the 13th century a mercantile oligarchy with power throughout all of Sicily and close relations to the Crown took control of the city, celebrated in Boccaccio’s Decameron (II.4), and enriched it with numerous monuments and artworks.

The cathedral, dedicated to S Pantaleone, dates to 1087 but was extensively altered in the late 18th century. The cathedral has three naves and the façade has three portals—the central one has a bronze door (...


Harley Preston and Lin Barton




Antonio Milone

Italian cathedral city in the province of Salerno, Campania. According to the 10th-century Chronicon Salernitanum, where it is referred to as Cama, Scala is the oldest centre along the entire Amalfi coast and has its origins in Late Antiquity. However, documentary proof that the city existed is only available from the beginning of the 10th century. Throughout history it has been home to a commercial aristocracy with commercial and political power throughout the entire Kingdom of Sicily. The Sasso and d’Afflitto families stood out from others in this group. Monasteries have been recorded in the city from the 10th century and it was under the control of the Duchy of Amalfi for the entire medieval period.

The settlement is characterized by numerous villages, such as Pontone and Minuta, which are found high up in the mountains behind Amalfi as well as in front of Ravello . Although the city is defended by a series of fortifications, it was damaged and sacked by a Pisan assault in ...