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Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...


Leyla Dunia

(b Milan, Dec 20, 1938; d Holguín, Cuba, Feb 10, 1997).

Venezuelan conceptual artist of Italian birth. Best known for his conceptual work and photography, Perna experimented profusely with mixed media through his innovative career. Alert to the movements within the avant-garde since the late 1960s, he worked with film, performance, photocopy, plastic assemblages, cartographies, painting, Polaroids, projections, and Fluxus, among others. He was also an intellectual and reflective thinker with extensive academic activity, often concerned by the artist’s role within the contemporary artistic system.

Born to an Italian father and a Venezuelan mother, Perna was affected as a child by the events of World War II and the hard years of the postwar period in Italy. He completed his first studies in the Italian city of Brescia and arrived in Venezuela at the end of 1955, and in 1958 he finished his secondary studies at the Liceo Andrés Bello in Caracas. After abandoning architecture studies at the Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, in ...


Naomi Sawelson-Gorse


(b Vienna, May 29, 1894; d Los Angeles, CA, Dec 22, 1969).

American film director and collector. He was able to amass a notable modern art collection through friendships and connections culled from frequent visits to Germany and Austria coupled with the financial success of his films, especially The Blue Angel (1930). It comprised mainly German Expressionist paintings, prints, drawings and sculptures as well as some Cubist and Fauvist works and works by artists of the Ecole de Paris; Sternberg usually preferred to purchase these works either directly from the artist or from European dealers, even after he settled permanently in Los Angeles. Sternberg generally remained aloof and isolated from other modern art collectors and from participation in the city’s activities, although parts of the collection were shown on three occasions at the County Museum of Art, Los Angeles (1935, 1943 and 1946). He did, however, purchase works by several local artists, in particular sculptors, whom he befriended, apparently enjoying a personal dialogue with them probably because he himself sculpted sporadically....


Marco Livingstone

[Warhola, Andrew ]

(b Pittsburgh, PA, Aug 6, 1928; d New York, Feb 22, 1987).

American painter, printmaker, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, film maker, writer, and collector. After studying at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh from 1945 to 1949, he moved to New York and began working as a commercial artist and illustrator for magazines and newspapers. His work of the 1950s, much of it commissioned by fashion houses, was charming and often whimsical in tone, typified by outline drawings using a delicate blotted line that gave even the originals a printed appearance; a campaign of advertisements for the shoe manufacturers I. Miller & Sons in 1955–6 (Kornbluth, pp. 113–21) was particularly admired, helping to earn him major awards from the Art Directors Club.

Warhol continued to support himself through his commercial work until at least 1963, but from 1960 he determined to establish his name as a painter. Motivated by a desire to be taken as seriously as the young artists whose work he had recently come to know and admire, especially Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, he began by painting a series of pictures based on crude advertisements and on images from comic strips. These are among the earliest examples of ...