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Article

Spanish, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active since 1979, also active in the USA.

Born 1952, in Barcelona.

Painter (mixed media), draughtsman.

Frederic Amat studied scenography and architecture from 1969 to 1973, and he also began to paint. His first solo exhibitions took place in Barcelona in ...

Article

V. Rakitin

[Georges] (Pavlovich)

(b Petropavlovsk, Kazakhstan, July 23, 1889; d Paris, July 18, 1974).

Russian painter, draughtsman and stage designer. He studied at the University of St Petersburg (later Petrograd) in 1908 and in the private studio of Savely Zeidenberg (1862–1924). In 1909–10 he attended the studio of Yan Tsyonglinsky (1850–1914) in St Petersburg, where he became acquainted with the avant-garde artists Yelena Guro (1877–1913), Mikhail Matyushin and Matvey Vol’demar (1878–1914). In 1911–12 he worked in the studios of Maurice Denis and Félix Vallotton in Paris, then in Switzerland (1913) before returning to St Petersburg. As a painter he was a modernist, and his work developed rapidly towards abstraction, although he did not adhere to any particular branch of it. His works of the time use various devices of stylization and decorativeness, and some of them echo the free associations of Marc Chagall, but fundamentally they remain geometrically based compositions. In 1919–20 he made a series of abstract sculptural assemblages and a great number of abstract collages....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born February 1903, in Tunis; died 24 January 1978, in Aix-en-Provence.

Painter, architect, decorative designer, designer, poster artist. Wall decorations, stage costumes and sets, furniture, advertising art.

Art et Lumière.

Félix Tahar Marie Aublet was the son of the Orientalist painter Albert Aublet. He was brought up both in Neuilly, France, and in a Moorish palace in Tunis, where the family spent six months of the year. His second forename, Tahar, means 'blessed one' in Arabic. In ...

Article

M. N. Sokolov

(b Djadjur, Akhuryan district, July 20, 1928; d Erevan, Feb 24, 1975).

Armenian painter and stage designer . He studied at the Institute of Theatre and Art in Erevan (1952–4), as well as at the Repin Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in Leningrad (now St Petersburg) from 1954 to 1960. He benefited from the advice of the Armenian painter, Martiros Saryan, but developed a style of his own, with an intense use of colour similar to that of Fauvism. The influence of Armenian medieval art is strongly apparent in his landscapes, self-portraits and scenes of peasant life, for example Baking Lavash (1972; Erevan, Pict. Gal. Armenia). His work combines an uncommon and expressive richness of colour with a dramatic monumentality of composition. He had a one-man show in Erevan in 1962 and another in Moscow in 1969. In 1972 his studio was burnt down and a large number of his canvases destroyed. He was also a stage designer, producing designs, for example, for sets for Aram Khachaturian’s ballet ...

Article

Libero Andreotti

(b Rovereto, Dec 10, 1896; d Milan, Sept 26, 1982).

Italian architect, stage designer and painter . After studying at the Scuola Reale Elisabettiana, an applied arts school in Rovereto, he joined the Futurist movement, headed locally by Fortunato Depero. After serving in World War I, he enrolled at the Scuola Superiore di Architettura del Politecnico, Milan, graduating in architecture in 1922. He then spent four years (1922–6) in Berlin working as a stage designer and frequenting the avant-garde milieu around Max Reinhardt, Erwin Piscator and Oskar Kokoschka. He returned to Italy in 1926 and set up his own practice. His first important commission, the remodelling of the Bar Craja (1930; with Figini and Pollini) in Milan, with its handsome glass and steel interior, established Baldessari’s reputation as an innovative designer. He collaborated again with Figini and Pollini on the De Angeli-Frua office building (1931–2) in Milan, a fine example of Italian Rationalism at its most restrained. Baldessari’s architectural masterpiece of this period was, however, the Press Pavilion (...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1937, in Ukkel.

Painter, draughtsman. Landscapes, architectural views, gardens, flowers. Stage costumes and sets.

Painted nostalgic views of baroque and Romanesque châteaux, royal gardens, landscapes and flowers.

Bosquet, Thierry/Dasnoy, Philippe: Versailles Disparu, Société des Amis de Versailles, Éd. Acatos, Lausanne, 2001....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 16 February 1922, in Paris.

Painter, pastellist, draughtsman, engraver (linocut). Figure compositions, genre scenes, figures, nudes, portraits, landscapes, landscapes with figures, architectural views. Stage sets.

Maurice Boucard studied art and law, and worked as an art teacher. Until 1963 he was in charge of the scenic workshop at the Vichy Opera. In ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1933.

Painter (including gouache), decorative designer. Figures, architectural views, flowers. Stage sets, stage costumes.

Dimitri Bouchêne was among the theatrical designers who followed on from Christian Bérard. His free, light line deliberately recalls classical architecture, though this is more suggested than actually represented and uses harmonious pale tones....

Article

Andrew Causey

(b London, March 29, 1905; d Hastings, Oct 22, 1976).

English painter, illustrator and stage designer. As a student at the Chelsea Polytechnic (1921–3) and the Royal College of Art (1923–5) he became a talented figure draughtsman. In the second half of the decade he spent much time in France painting intricately detailed urban scenes, which depicted the low life of Toulon and Marseille. Works such as the watercolour Toulon (1927; priv. col., see Causey, cat. no. 33) were executed in a meticulously finished and vividly coloured decorative style. Burra usually used watercolour and tempera and occasionally collage oil paints.

Burra took ideas from Cubism, Dada (notably George Grosz) and, especially, Surrealism, but his work is also linked with the English satirical tradition of William Hogarth, Thomas Rowlandson and Isaac Cruikshank: Burra loved burlesque and poked fun at people’s pretensions and excesses of style and behaviour, as in John Deth (Homage to Conrad Aiken) (...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 2 February 1823, in Paris; died 1907, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, designer. Church interiors, landscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views. Stage sets.

Philippe Chaperon was set designer at the Opéra in Paris, producing most of the sets for French subsidised theatres, as well as the main theatres in France and abroad and the Expositions Universelles. He painted watercolours based on nature. He was the father of Eugène and Émile Chaperon, who took over from him....

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 11 November 1891, in Bergamo; died 21 August 1957, in Lugano (Ticino), Switzerland, or 27 August according to some sources.

Painter, draughtsman, architect, scenographer.

Futurism.

Mario Chiattone was the son of a painter and printer named Gabriele Chiattone, who collected works by the Lombard Divisionist painters and Umberto Boccioni. Mario Chiattone studied architecture at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Brera and the Scuola d'Arte Applicata e del Libro in Milan. He met Carrà, Boccioni, Romani and Dudreville and became friends with Sant'Elia, with whom he shared a studio and started working on architecture projects in ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 11 November 1959, in Paris.

Painter, illustrator. Landscapes, landscapes with figures, architectural views, ruins. Stage sets.

Dominique Chouaba was awarded first prize at the Paris Conservatoire de Musique and graduated in English language and literature from the Sorbonne before taking up painting full time in ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Active then naturalised in the USA.

Born 30 December 1891, in St Petersburg; died 1976.

Painter, illustrator. Architectural views, ruins. Stage sets.

Yacov Elshin was a pupil of Zenin, Russanov, Andriev and Dmitriev and is known for his reminiscences of ancient ruins as well as for compositions for the ...

Article

Anne Pastori

(b Lucerne, Feb 21, 1909; d March 21, 2015).

Swiss painter, draughtsman, sculptor and stage designer. He took an apprenticeship as a draughtsman-architect (1924–7) and then studied at the Ecole des Arts et Métiers in Lucerne (1927–8). Between 1928 and 1929 he stayed for the first time in Paris, where he attended the Académie Julian. He continued his training at the Vereinigte Staatschulen für freie und angewandte Kunst, Berlin (1929–30). The works of this period are signed François Grècque, a pseudonym that shows his admiration for ancient Greek art, traces of which are found in his works. In the course of many visits to Paris between 1932 and 1934, he had contacts with many artists, including Brancusi, Alexander Calder, Kandinsky, Mondrian and Henry Moore, and he was strongly influenced by the works of Braque and Picasso. In October 1933 he joined the Abstraction–Création group. In 1935 he collaborated in the exhibition Thèse, antithèse, synthèse...

Article

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Born 1898, in Leeuwarden; died 1972.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver (wood), lithographer. Figures, interiors, landscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views. Wall decorations, postage stamps.

M.C. Escher was born into a family of artists, and began by studying engineering at the technical university in Delft, while also studying at the school of architecture and decorative arts in Haarlem. A keen traveller, he lived in Italy from 1923 to 1935 and returned to settle in Holland in 1937. With a wide following in many countries, this Dutch artist's works were not truly known and appreciated in France until 1972 onwards, despite some articles that had revealed his art to the French-speaking public prior to this....

Article

Radomíra Sedláková

(b Dobrovice, Jan 15, 1892; d Prague, May 10, 1936).

Czech architect, painter and stage designer. He graduated in architecture (1917) from the Technical University, Prague, and in 1921 he received a scholarship to the Ecole du Louvre in Paris. In 1922 he became a member of Devětsil, the group of avant-garde writers, artists and architects centred on the figure of Karel Teige. He also joined the Architects’ Club. His early work was influenced by Cubism and classicism, but his most significant building was the crematorium (1921–3; with Bohumil Sláma) at Nymburk, a fundamental work of Czech architectural Purism composed of dramatic white cylinders and slabs, with a row of massive columns and ceremonial steps along the main façade. All his designs were strictly tectonic; he aimed for the creation of a new style inspired by the Neo-classical Empire style. During the first half of the 1920s he also worked as a stage designer in Prague, creating a range of designs in the spirit of poetic Purism; examples include sets for the National Theatre (...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 29 August 1886, in Paris; died 7 October 1950, in Loudun.

Painter, pastellist, designer, illustrator. Portraits, scenes with figures, landscapes, ruins. Murals, stage sets.

Jean Foussier was the son of the architect and designer Ernest Foussier. He began studying drawing at the École Bernard Palissy before joining the studio of Luc-Olivier Merson and Raphaël Collin at the École des Beaux-Arts....

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born 30 May 1909, in Châtenois; died 1995, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, pastellist, illustrator. Nudes, portraits, interiors, landscapes, architectural views, seascapes. Posters, stage sets.

Anne Français was self-trained, notably in the free studios of the Grande Chaumière academy in Paris. She lived in Paris, in the Lyons region and on the Côte d'Azur. After ...

Article

V. Rakitin

(Mikhaylovich)

(b Kozlov [now Michurinsk, Tambov region], Aug 12, 1881; d Moscow, July 23, 1963).

Russian painter, stage designer and administrator. He studied at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in Moscow (1903–15) under Abram Arkhipov, Nikolay Kasatkin and Korovin family, §2, among others. At the School he emerged as a leader of a group of traditionalists who contended with the avant-garde led by Mikhail Larionov. After service in the army he returned to Kozlov, where he worked as a stage designer and decorated the town for revolutionary festivities. In 1925 he moved to Moscow, where he was a member of the Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia. The style Gerasimov was using by the mid-1920s in his landscapes and portraits, which was a combination of academic realism and Impressionism, remained practically unchanged throughout his life.

Gerasimov’s work is significant as representative of a solemn ‘heroic realism’ (e.g. Lenin on the Tribune, 1929–30; Moscow, Cent. Lenin Mus.), later considered a paradigm of Socialist Realism. He painted a series of pompous official portraits of Soviet leaders (e.g. ...

Article

N. Ya. Malakhov

(Sergeyevich)

(b Leningrad [now St Petersburg], June 10, 1930).

Russian painter, stage designer and draughtsman. He studied at the Repin Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in Leningrad from 1951 to 1957. His early works caused heated debate as they went against the official Socialist Realism style of the early 1950s. Since then his work, principally in oils (sometimes including decorative appliqué work), pastels, tempera and charcoal, has attracted increasing attention and has been exhibited widely, surrounded by public acclamation and mass-media debates. The cycle Eternal Russia is dedicated to Russian, principally medieval, culture. The works in the cycle, for example the sub-cycle Kulikovo Field (1980), display intense and vibrant colours and epic patriotic concepts. The more lyrical cycle City of the 20th Century, begun earlier, depicts the emotional life of the individual, estranged and isolated in the modern megalopolis. The sections Vietnam (1967), Chile (1969) and Nicaragua (1973) are journalistic graphic dispatches. Russian literature plays an important part in his art and he illustrated works by, among others, ...