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Michèle Lavallée

[Fr.: ‘new art’]

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.

Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...


Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....


Swiss, 19th century, male.

Active in Lucerne.

Born 27 November 1828, in Abtwil.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Religious subjects. Designs for stained glass.

Balmer learned the basics of design in the workshops of a goldsmith in Sins in the canton of Aargau, before moving to Anton Bühler's studio in Lucerne. In ...


American, 19th – 20th century, female.

Active in New York.

Painter, illustrator, stained glass painter.


British, 19th century, male.

Born 28 August 1833, in Birmingham, England; died 17 June 1898, in Fulham (London), England.

Painter, decorative artist, draughtsman, watercolourist, illustrator. Figures, scenes with figures. Designs for tapestries, designs for stained glass, designs for mosaics.



The son of Edward Richard Jones and Elisabeth Coley, Edward Burne-Jones began to prepare for a career in the church and enrolled as a theology student at Exeter College, Oxford, where a fellow pupil was William Morris. However, his sight of a drawing by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, an illustration for William Allingham’s The Maids of Elfin Mere, was decisive in his change of direction. He was 22 when, in 1855, he went to London to show his first drawings to Rossetti, whose work had so deeply moved him. Rossetti encouraged Burne-Jones and offered to take him as a part-time pupil. Together with William Morris, Burne-Jones left university without a thought for his abandoned degree and, after a year studying with the young Rossetti, sought to earn a living by selling pen drawings and watercolours at the same time as continuing to take lessons from Rossetti. In ...


French, 19th century, male.

Born 1824, in St-Servais (Finistère); died 20 November 1889.

Painter, illustrator. Religious subjects, figures, genre scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures, flowers. Church decoration, designs for stained glass.

He was self-taught and took part in the Salon de Paris from 1851 onwards. He divided his time between Brittany and Paris, and was a Chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur....


French, 19th century, male.

Born 6 February 1800, in Paris; died 23 December 1857, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Portraits, genre scenes. Designs for stained glass.

The brother of Eugène Devéria, Achille Jacques Jean Marie studied under M. Laffitte and Girodet. In the 1820s, he shared a studio with his brother in the family home in Paris. Their younger sister, the flower painter and musician Laure, lived with them, and their home became the meeting-place for young romantics such as Victor Hugo, A. de Musset, E. Delacroix, St-Beuve and F. Liszt. Through his marriage, Devéria became the son-in-law of the lithographer Charles Motte, whose technique influenced him. In 1848, he was appointed assistant curator of the print exhibition room at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, and in April 1857 he became its curator. His work as a draughtsman is not significant. The best of it consists of cartoons for stained glass that are kept in the Musée de Versailles. As an engraver, he produced a large number of libertine engravings and reproduced the etchings of his brother. But Devéria was primarily a talented lithographer. His prints, which mostly appeared between 1828 and 1835, were published in the form of notebooks and illustrated books. In the 1830s, he illustrated several books for children, notably Jean de La Fontaine's ...


British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1866, in Dundee, Scotland; died 1945, in Edinburgh.

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. History painting, mythological subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes. Murals, designs for stained glass.

John McKirdy Duncan studied at the Dundee School of Art and then spent three years in London before leaving for Antwerp and Düsseldorf. During his time on the continent he spent a winter in Rome and developed a deep admiration for the work of Michelangelo. When he returned to Dundee he became a member of the Graphic Arts Association. From ...


German, 19th century, male.

Born 19 November 1865, in Hamburg; died 11 June 1902, in Badenweiler.

Painter, decorative artist, illustrator, engraver, designer, ceramicist, textile designer. Portraits, landscapes, flowers. Designs for stained glass, designs for tapestries, ex-libris plates, advertising posters, fabrics, ceramics, metal objects, ironware, lamps, furniture, typefaces, jewellery, wallpaper...


French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 6 September 1868, in Paris, to Belgian and Dutch parents; died 26 November 1943, in Paris.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, engraver, lithographer, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, designer. Scenes with figures, figures, landscapes. Designs for tapestries, and stained glass windows.

Symbolism, Japonisme, Art Nouveau...


Sabine Kehl-Baierle

(b Leonfelden, Upper Austria, Nov 2, 1878; d Stockerau, nr Vienna, Nov 5, 1936).

Austrian designer, painter and illustrator. He studied from 1899 to 1902 under Kolo Moser and Karl Karger (1848–1913) at the Kunstgewerbeschule in the Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie in Vienna, and in 1903 under Ludwig Herterich (1856–1932) at the Kunstakademie in Munich. He was represented at the 15th exhibition of the Vienna Secession in 1902 and produced woodcuts for Ver Sacrum in 1903. He was co-founder of the Vereinigung Wiener Kunst im Hause; he designed the poster for the exhibition of 1903–4 and showed stained-glass windows, naturalistic watercolours of peasant types, and tapestry designs. He made numerous study trips to Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and especially Italy, where he studied the work of glassmakers and mosaicists in Ravenna, Rome and Venice. From 1906 he worked intensively to revive the art of the mosaic, prepared the foundation of the Wiener Mosaik Werkstätte (trade licence 1908) and added his own glassworks in ...


(b Upper Norwood, Surrey, Jan 25, 1872; d Kensington, London, March 10, 1945).

English illustrator, painter and designer. She entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, and won a prize for a mural design in 1897. She specialized in book illustration, in pen and ink and later in colour. Among her many commissions were illustrations to Tennyson’s Poems (1905) and Idylls of the King (1911) and Browning’s Pippa Passes (1908). She was particularly popular with the publishers of the lavishly illustrated gift-books fashionable in the Edwardian era. She exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy and the Royal Water-Colour Society. She took up stained-glass design (windows in Bristol Cathedral), which modified her style of illustration to flat areas of colour within black outlines. She also painted plaster figurines and designed bookplates.

Fortescue-Brickdale continued the Pre-Raphaelite tradition, reworking romantic and moralizing medieval subjects in naturalistic and often strong colour and elaborate detail. Her most important oil painting is The Forerunner...


Roger Billcliffe

(b Glasgow, Nov 7, 1865; d Glasgow, June 18, 1936).

Scottish painter, stained-glass designer and illustrator. He attended evening classes at the Glasgow School of Art from 1882 to 1885 while an apprentice lithographer. In 1887 he worked as an illustrator on a Glasgow newspaper and in 1889 provided illustrations for a book of poetry by James Hedderwick. His paintings of this period were realist in subject and low in tone, but these illustrations show an awareness of Pre-Raphaelite technique and symbolism, particularly that of Dante Gabriel Rossetti.

Symbolism of a similar kind appeared in his oil paintings in 1889. In two works, Music (priv. col., see Billcliffe, pl. 232) and St Agnes (London, Andrew McIntosh Patrick priv. col., see Billcliffe, pl. 233), the change in subject was accompanied by a more colourful palette and more thickly applied paint. Perspective is flattened, and a dark outline surrounds each figure and other objects in the composition. The religious symbolism and outlined technique, which may have influenced his close friend Charles Rennie Mackintosh, almost certainly reflect Gauld’s involvement in designing stained-glass panels. Throughout the 1890s he worked freelance for some of the many stained-glass manufacturers in Glasgow. For ...


British, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 1 August 1865, in London, to Scottish parents; died 5 January 1917, in London.

Painter, illustrator, poster artist. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, portraits, interiors with figures, still-lifes, flowers. Designs for stained glass.


Isobel Gloag studied at the St John's Wood Art School and the Slade School in London, then in the studio of M.W. Ridley. She also studied with Raphaël Collin in Paris. She liked to illustrate scenes from old ballads and romances. Her style is similar to that of the Pre-Raphaelites. She suffered from health problems throughout her life. She was a member of the Ridley Art Club and exhibited at the Royal Academy from ...


German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 25 January 1868, in Dachau; died 1947, in Obermenzig near Munich.

Painter, stained glass painter, draughtsman, illustrator. Genre scenes. Posters, murals, designs for mosaics.


Josef Goller trained as a stained-glass painter in Munich and worked from 1887 for a firm specialising in this technique in Zittau. In ...


Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active from 1871, later naturalised in France.

Born 25 May 1841, in Paris, to Swiss parents; died 23 October 1917, in Sceaux (Hauts-de-Seine), France.

Painter, watercolourist, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, poster artist, decorative designer. Religious subjects, urban landscapes. Designs for stained glass, designs (fabric/ceramics), furniture...


French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 21 September 1872; died 1967, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator. Portraits, landscapes, scenes with figures. Designs for stained glass.

Émile Guillonnet was a student of Lionel Royer and F. Cormon at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He worked for various illustrated magazines and exhibited at the Salon of the Société des Artistes Français in Paris from 1887. He was awarded a silver medal in 1900 and was also made an officer of the Légion d'Honneur. He illustrated ...


French, 19th century, male.

Born 8 March 1824, in Lyons; died 17 February 1888, in Lyons.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Portraits, genre scenes, interiors with figures, hunting scenes, landscapes, animals. Designs for stained glass.

Jean Baptiste Louis Guy was a pupil of Claude Bonnefond and Jean Antoine Duclaux at the École des Beaux-Arts in Lyons from 1839 to 1846. He exhibited at the Lyons Salon from 1840 and then at the Paris Salon from 1868. In 1871 he was appointed professor at the École des Beaux-Arts in Lyons, where he taught Augustin Pierre Chenu, Armand Bernard, Frank Bail, Charles Joseph Beauverie and Charles Montlevault. He was also the headmaster of a municipal art school....


British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1858; died 1948.

Painter, illustrator, potter. Landscapes. Designs for stained glass.

Reginald Hallward was a student at the Slade School in London, and at South Kensington School of Art. He showed his work in London, exhibiting at the Royal Academy and the Society of Arts and Crafts....


American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1851, in Brooklyn; died 1 July 1915, in Bay Ridge (New York).

Stained glass painter, illustrator.

Otto Heinigke worked on the decoration of the Library of Congress in Washington.