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Monica Bohm-Duchen

(b Haag, Austria, April 5, 1900; d Santa Barbara, CA, Sept 30, 1985).

American painter, designer, photographer and typographer, of Austrian birth. After serving in the Austrian army (1917–18), Bayer studied architecture under Professor Schmidthammer in Linz in 1919 and in 1920 worked with the architect Emanuel Margold in Darmstadt. From 1921 to 1923 he attended the Bauhaus in Weimar, studying mural painting (with Vasily Kandinsky) and typography; it was at this time that he created the Universal alphabet, consisting only of lowercase letters. In 1925 he returned to the Bauhaus, then in Dessau, as a teacher of advertising, layout and typography, remaining there until 1928. For the next ten years he was based in Berlin as a commercial artist: he worked as art manager of Vogue (1929–30) and as director of the Dorland advertising agency. Shortly after his first one-man exhibitions at the Galerie Povolotski, Paris, and at the Kunstlerbund März, Linz (both 1929), he created photomontages of a Surrealist nature, such as ...


Erika Billeter

(b Buenos Aires, Jul 31, 1906; d Buenos Aires, Jun 18, 2012).

Argentine photographer. Having produced his first photographs in 1928, he studied in 1932 at the Bauhaus, Berlin, under the American photographer Walter Peterhans (1897–1960). There he met the German photographer Grete Stern, whom he was later to marry and with whom he started a studio for publicity photography in Buenos Aires in 1937. He established his name in 1936 with the publication of his book on Buenos Aires. He preferred to illustrate art books and was particularly interested in the ceramic culture of Peru and the sculpture of Rodin. Among his other publications were monographs on Stonehenge, Paestum, and the Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum in Duisburg, and the volume De Fotografía (Buenos Aires, 1969).

Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires, 1936.Imagema: Antología fotográfica, 1927–1994. Buenos Aires, [1994].Billeter, E. Fotografie Lateinamerika. Zurich and Bern, 1981.Facio, S. La fotografía en la Argentina desde 1840 a nuestros días. Buenos Aires, 1995....


Sheryl Conkelton


(b Berlin, June 11, 1910; d Cambridge, MA, July 7, 2011).

American photographer and painter, son of Lyonel Feininger. While still a teenager he studied at the Bauhaus under Josef Albers, Paul Klee and Vasily Kandinsky. While there he collaborated on theatre and music projects with Oskar Schlemmer. He studied photography with László Moholy-Nagy, creating visual experiments with oblique angles, solarization and close-ups, as, for example, in his portrait of Clemens Röseler (1920s; New York, Prakapas Gal.). From 1927 to 1932 he photographed for the agency Dephot in Berlin. Some of his photographs were included in the important exhibition Film und Foto in Stuttgart in 1929. In 1932 he left the Bauhaus to live in Paris, giving up photography and working and exhibiting as a painter. In 1935 Feininger returned to Germany, then emigrated to the USA, where, after study at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York, he taught at Sarah Lawrence College from 1950 to 1952, Harvard University from ...


Terence A. Senter

(b Bácsborsod, Mohol Puszta, Hungary, July 20, 1895; d Chicago, Nov 24, 1946).

American painter, sculptor, photographer, designer, film maker, theorist, and teacher, of Hungarian birth. Moholy-Nagy’s importance in the 20th century is based as much on his theories as on his practical work. His ideologies related to the relationship between space, time, and light, and the interaction of man with these forces. His great achievement was that he applied his mystical outlook to highly practical enterprises and always recognized the purpose behind his creativity.

Moholy-Nagy’s ambition developed when he exchanged village life for the city of Szeged after his father left his family. Academically outstanding, Moholy-Nagy read law for a year at Budapest University before joining the artillery in World War I. Influential praise for his war sketches converted his aspiration from literature to art. His Expressionist style, social conscience, and investigation of light paralleled trends in the Hungarian avant-garde, from ...