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Article

Andreas Kreul

(b Hamburg, Oct 2, 1757; d Pisa, Aug 18, 1806).

German architect, draughtsman, landscape designer and painter. He studied from 1778 to 1783 at the University of Göttingen and the Royal Danish Academy in Copenhagen, where he was awarded four prizes. His early designs included drawings for the hothouse of the botanic gardens in Copenhagen and a lecture room at Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin. While visiting Paris in 1784–5 he devoted himself to the study of Revolutionary architecture, and in England and Italy (1786) he studied landscape design and ancient sites. In Rome in 1787 he met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who later summoned him to Weimar to rebuild the prince’s Schloss. In addition to a number of designs for the palace at Weimar he produced drawings for various summer-houses. In 1790 he moved to Hamburg, his plans for the Schloss at Weimar still largely unexecuted. By the end of his life he had designed numerous public buildings and private houses in Hamburg, including the house for Bürgermeister ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1749, in Versailles; died 1825, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, draughtsman (wash), engraver, decorative artist. Mythological subjects, allegorical subjects, historical portraits, hunting scenes, interiors with figures, gardens. Stage costumes and sets, furniture, designs for fabrics, frontispieces.

Dugourc's father, who was in the service of the Duke of Orléans, had a considerable fortune. Dugourc was permitted to attend the lessons taken by the Duke of Chartres (the future Philippe-Égalité), and at the age 15 left for Rome, attached to the embassy of the Count of Cani. From his infancy, he had shown an aptitude for drawing, perspective and architecture. However, the death of his mother, followed shortly after by the loss of his father's fortune, changed his life. From being an amateur, Dugourc became a professional artist, and executed paintings, sculptures and engravings. In a work published in ...

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1769, in Paddington; died 1821, in London.

Painter, miniaturist, watercolourist, draughtsman. Portraits.

Henry Edridge may have been a pupil of Pether, the mezzotint engraver and landscape artist, but he excelled above all at miniatures, which he did in Indian ink and watercolour. Elected an associate of the Royal Academy in ...

Article

Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1747, in Rome; died 1819, in Milan.

Painter. Landscapes with figures, landscapes, seascapes.

The son of Filippo Fidanza, he studied under Vernet and Lacroix. He was an accomplished landscape artist who worked for Eugène de Beauharnais.

Florence (Uffizi): drawings...

Article

[P’yetro di Gonzaga]

(b Longarone, nr Venice, March 25, 1751; d St Petersburg, Aug 6, 1831).

Italian painter, stage designer and landscape designer, also active in Russia. He studied in Venice (1769–72) under Giuseppe Moretti and Antonio Visentini (1688–1782) and finished his education in Milan (1772–8), studying with the stage designers Bernardino, Fabrizio and Giovanni Antonio Galliari. He was considerably influenced by the works of Canaletto and Piranesi. He made his début as a stage designer in Milan at the Teatro alla Scala in 1779 and designed over 60 productions in Milan, Rome, Genoa and other Italian cities. From 1792 he worked in Russia, where he went on the recommendation of Prince Nikolay Yusupov, who was at that time the chief director of music and pageantry at the court of Catherine II.

In his stage designs Gonzago put into effect his theoretical principles, which he explained in the handbook Information à mon chef ou éclaircissement convenable du décorateur théâtral (St Petersburg, ...

Article

Cinzia Maria Sicca

(b Bridlington, bapt Jan 1, 1685; d London, April 12, 1748).

English architect, painter, landscape gardener and designer. He was the most exuberant and innovative architect and designer active in England in the first half of the 18th century. He was trained as a painter but was not particularly successful or remarkable in this work, showing greater skill as a draughtsman. As an architect he was highly versatile, practising in both the Palladian and Gothick styles, and this versatility extended to his work as a designer, which included interior decoration, furniture and silverware, book illustration, stage sets and gardens.

Kent was born into a poor family in the East Riding of Yorkshire. Nothing is known of his early education, nor of the circumstances that led to his apprenticeship to a coach-painter in Hull at about the age of 15. Kent is first recorded in London in 1709, when he applied for a passport to go to Italy. He was then 24 and, according to ...

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born c. 1760; died after 1833.

Painter, watercolourist. Genre scenes, flowers, animals.

James Lambert the Younger was the son of landscape artist, James Lambert the Elder. Between 1769 and 1778, he exhibited his work at the Free Society and at the Royal Academy....

Article

Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active in Venice.

Born 10 May 1754, in Pistoia; died 16 November 1831, in Venice.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver. Portraits, genre scenes.

Matteini was the father of the landscape artist Anna. He studied art in Rome with Batoni and Mengs, and worked in Florence and Milan. He engraved ...

Article

Elizabeth Allen

(b London, 1731; d London, Dec 18, 1810).

English painter and stage designer. From 1759 Richards was a very successful painter at Covent Garden, London, where he collaborated with Nicholas Thomas Dall (fl 1760–71; d 1777) and Giovanni Battista Cipriani, and from 1777 to 1803 he was the theatre’s Principal Painter. From 1762 he exhibited landscapes and ruin pieces at the Society of Artists of Great Britain, as well as a scene from a stage setting for the Maid of the Mill (New Haven, CT, Yale Cent. Brit. A.); engraved by William Woollett in 1768, it achieved great popularity. Richards exhibited at the Free Society of Artists from 1769 to 1783, and was a founder-member of the Royal Academy, where from 1769 to 1809 he exhibited capriccios and landscapes, and occasionally, early intimations of the picturesque, such as a Cascade at Hestercombe (signed and dated 1770; Stourhead, Wilts, NT). His watercolours, such as Orpington (1768...

Article

German, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born at the end of the 18th century, in Villach.

Painter.

Johann von Schreiber was a landscape artist and also painted stage-sets.

Klagenfurt (Church of St-Egyde): Coronation of the Virgin

Article

Susan Morris

(b Irthington, Cumbria, July 26, 1749; d London, March 22, 1831).

English painter. The son of a gardener to the Gilpin family, he studied under the animal painter Sawrey Gilpin. During a trip to Derbyshire with Gilpin he met George Greville, 2nd Earl of Warwick, who gave him financial support to go to Italy between 1776 and 1781. Smith spent 1778–9 in Naples and was otherwise based in Rome, where he explored the Campagna and made sketches with William Pars and Francis Towne. The strong greens and purples and crisp pen outlines of some of Smith’s watercolours are strongly influenced by Towne’s style. Smith and Towne travelled together across the Alps on their way back to England in 1781, after which Smith settled in Warwick. He contributed six views to Samuel Middiman’s Select Views in Great Britain (1784–5) and between 1784 and 1806 toured Wales 13 times in search of Picturesque and Sublime scenery. He also visited the Lake District between ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 20 November 1757, in Moutier-en-Der (Haute-Marne); died 27 June 1826, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman (including ink). Church interiors, landscapes with figures, landscapes, urban landscapes, gardens, harbour scenes, architectural views.

Jean Thomas Thibault made his name essentially through his architectural drawings....