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Jan Minchin

(Vladimir Jossif)

(b Vienna, Oct 13, 1920).

Israeli painter of Austrian birth, active in Australia. He grew up in Warsaw. His father, the pseudonymous Jewish writer Melech Ravitch, owned books on German Expressionism, which were an early influence. Conscious of rising anti-Semitism in Poland, Ravitch visited Australia in 1934 and later arranged for his family to settle there. Bergner arrived in Melbourne in 1937. Poor, and with little English, his struggle to paint went hand-in-hand with a struggle to survive. In 1939 he attended the National Gallery of Victoria’s art school and came into contact with a group of young artists including Victor O’Connor (b 1918) and Noel Counihan, who were greatly influenced by Bergner’s haunting images of refugees, hard-pressed workers and the unemployed, for example The Pumpkin-eaters (c. 1940; Canberra, N.G.). Executed in an expressionist mode using a low-toned palette, they were among the first social realist pictures done in Australia.

In 1941...


Ita Heinze-Greenberg

(b Allenstein [now Olsztyn, Poland], March 21, 1887; d San Francisco, Sept 15, 1953).

German architect, teacher, and writer, active also in England, Palestine, and the USA. Mendelsohn was one of the most influential exponents of architectural Expressionism, and his sketches of fluid organic building forms and his Einstein Tower, Potsdam, are among the best-known products of the movement. Although his later work abandoned three-dimensional forms in favour of more conventional, geometric designs, these often incorporated curvilinear plans and retained an innovative dynamism.

Mendelsohn grew up as one of six children of a Jewish business family in the small East Prussian town of Allenstein. Following his father’s wishes, in 1907 he began to study economics at the University of Munich but in 1908 followed his own inclinations and enrolled as an architecture student at the Technische Hochschule, Berlin. In 1910 he returned to Munich to complete his architectural studies under Theodor Fischer, one of the most progressive teachers at the Technische Hochschule, and as a student he met several Expressionist artists, including Paul Klee, Franz Marc, Vasily Kandinsky, and Hugo Ball. After graduating in ...


Israeli, 20th century, male.

Active in Paris from 1955.

Born 1912.


Daviel Messer belonged to the Expressionist movement of the Paris School.

He exhibited in Israel, in several annual Salons in Paris, and in Canada, the USA, Switzerland, England and Japan.


(b Zerków, nr Posen, Germany [now Poznań, Poland], May 27, 1887; d Nahariya, Israel, 1968).

Israeli printmaker and painter of German birth. He attended the Akademie der Künste in Berlin in 1906 and in 1907 studied painting with Lovis Corinth and etching with the German painter Hermann Struck (1876–1944). He went to Paris in 1907 and here he studied first under Jean-Paul Laurens, then under Matisse and Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen. After returning briefly to Berlin in 1910 he visited Italy the following year. In Berlin again in 1912 he co-founded Die Pathetiker group together with Ludwig Meidner and the German painter Richard Janthur (b 1883); they had their first group show at the Sturm-Galerie that year. The group emphasized dramatic content over artistic form and the resulting works, such as Steinhardt’s oil The City (1913; Berlin, Neue N.G.), reveal the characteristic Expressionist style. Die Pathetiker (Berlin, 1912), a portfolio of the group’s work, included etchings by Steinhardt.

While serving in the German army in World War I Steinhardt successfully exhibited 50 drawings at the ...