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Jan Minchin

(Vladimir Jossif)

(b Vienna, Oct 13, 1920).

Israeli painter of Austrian birth, active in Australia. He grew up in Warsaw. His father, the pseudonymous Jewish writer Melech Ravitch, owned books on German Expressionism, which were an early influence. Conscious of rising anti-Semitism in Poland, Ravitch visited Australia in 1934 and later arranged for his family to settle there. Bergner arrived in Melbourne in 1937. Poor, and with little English, his struggle to paint went hand-in-hand with a struggle to survive. In 1939 he attended the National Gallery of Victoria’s art school and came into contact with a group of young artists including Victor O’Connor (b 1918) and Noel Counihan, who were greatly influenced by Bergner’s haunting images of refugees, hard-pressed workers and the unemployed, for example The Pumpkin-eaters (c. 1940; Canberra, N.G.). Executed in an expressionist mode using a low-toned palette, they were among the first social realist pictures done in Australia.

In 1941...


New Zealander, 20th century, male.

Born 9 June 1906, in Westport; died 15 April 1971, in London.

Painter, printmaker, graphic designer.

Artists' International Association, London Group.

James Boswell came to England to study at London's Royal Academy in 1925. In 1933 he joined the Communist Party and became a founder member of the ...


Australian, 20th century, male.

Born 4 June 1912, in Footscray (Victoria); died 26 July 2003, in Melbourne.

Painter. Figures, nudes, landscapes.

Sir William Dargie won the Archibald Prize, the most important portraiture prize, and regarded as the most prominent of all arts prizes in Australia, eight times. Notable portraits include those of Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh. During World War II, he served as an official war artist in New Guinea, Greece, Crete, the Middle East and India. He was head of the Victorian National Gallery Art School ...



Sara Stevens

American architectural firm started by Arthur Gensler Drue Gensler, and Jim Follett in 1965 in San Francisco, CA. M. Arthur Gensler jr (b Brooklyn, New York, 1935) attended Cornell University to study architecture (BArch, 1957). The firm began doing build-outs for retail stores and corporate offices, and initially established itself in the unglamorous area of interior architecture. Thirty years later and without mergers or acquisitions, it had grown to become one of the largest architecture firms in the world, having pioneered the global consultancy firm specializing in coordinated rollouts of multi-site building programmes. By 2012 the firm had over 3000 employees in over 40 offices. From the beginning, Art Gensler conceived of a global firm with multiple offices serving corporate clients whose businesses were becoming more international. Instead of the ‘starchitect’ model of his contemporaries such as I. M. Pei or Paul Rudolph, Gensler wanted an ego-free office that existed to serve client needs, not pursue a designer’s aesthetic agenda at the client’s expense. By adopting new web-based computing technologies and integrated design software in the early 1990s, the firm stayed well connected across their many offices and were more able than their competitors to manage large multi-site projects. Expanding from the services a traditional architecture firm offers, the company pushed into new areas well suited to their information technology and interiors expertise, such as organizational design, project management, and strategic facilities planning....


Australian, 20th century, male.

Born 13 June 1912, in Edwardstown, Adelaide; died 1 December 1993, in Bedford Park, Adelaide.

Painter. Scenes with figures.

At the age of eight, Ivor Hele joined James Ashton's art class at Prince Alfred College, Adelaide. In 1923 he began taking evening classes at the South Australian School of Arts and Crafts while receiving extra tuition from Marie Tuck. He travelled to Europe in 1928 and continued his studies under Biloul in Paris and Moliere in Munich. In 1932 he began teaching life drawing at the South Australian School of Arts and Crafts. Hele enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force in 1940 and was sent to serve in the Middle East. He was appointed an Official War Artist on 11 October 1941. In this capacity, he served in North Africa and New Guinea and in 1952, in Korea. From 1951 to 1957 he won the Archibald Prize for portraiture five times. He was awarded a CBE for services to art in 1969 and in 1983 he was knighted. Hele painted very large works in muted tones, using heavy impasto. While his figure studies, portraits and nudes appear fresh and spontaneous, they are underpinned by solid modelling and suffused with a marked luminosity that lends them a sculptural monumentality. Colour and tone vary to reflect the mood of the scene....


Australian, 20th century, male.

Born 22 September 1920, in Adelaide; died 18 January 1996, in Sydney.

Painter. Figures, urban landscapes.

Louis Robert James was employed as a draughtsman in the Department of Lands and Survey from 1937. During World War II, he served in the Australian forces in England, the Middle East, Palestine and Syria. He returned to the Department of Lands and Survey in ...


Anne Kirker

(b Sydney, 1964).

Australian draughtswoman, active in the USA. Of Iraqi descent, Khedoori was born and raised in Australia, going on to study at the San Francisco Art Institute where she was awarded a BFA in 1988, and then studying at the University of California, Los Angeles, where she received an MFA in 1994. At a time when installation art and electronic media attracted many artists of her generation, Khedoori chose the medium of drawing as her preferred practice, tapping into the tactile, handcrafted realm of mark-making on paper. She worked on huge sheets of paper coated with transparent wax, creating unframed works that appear to float from the wall. Often two or three sheets are abutted to spread to 3.5×6 m or wider. A constant of these lineally inscribed, pared-back drawings is their iconography of wire-mesh pens, empty houses and streets, vacant overpasses and bridges, doors and seats. Only sometimes (and more often in her 21st-century works), did she refer to nature—such as using an abstract sweep of bars to indicate rain or a lightly rendered topographical view....


[tribal art]

The market for ‘tribal art’ emerged in the first decades of the 20th century. By way of avant-garde artists and pioneering dealers, African and Oceanic art slowly became accepted as ‘art’—with its inclusion in the Musée du Louvre in Paris in 2000 as a decisive endorsement. Initially, it was referred to as ‘primitive art’—alluding to an early ‘primitive’ stage in human development; later replaced by the equally biased ‘tribal art’. While still used widely among dealers and collectors (for want of a better word and being conveniently short), the term ‘tribe’, or its derivative ‘tribal’, is frowned upon by the scholarly community.

The foundations of the tribal art market were laid at the turn of the 20th century. European powers colonized large overseas territories in both Africa and Oceania and, along with other commodities, there arrived ethnographic artefacts. Europeans had conducted coastal trade with many African regions over centuries, but systematic explorations of the continental hinterland did sometimes not take place until the first decades of the 20th century. These resulted in the discovery of previously unknown cultures whose ritual objects, such as masks, were displayed during world’s fairs and colonial exhibitions. Many of these objects ended up in newly established museums, such as the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, outside Brussels. Vigorous competitors in the collection of ethnographic objects in both Africa and Oceania, these museums became the leading players in the early phases of the tribal art market’s development. Next to these large-scale official collecting activities, colonial, military, or missionary personnel also brought home exotic objects....


Ian McLean


(b Springvale cattle station, Western Australia, 1935).

Australian Aboriginal painter. Peters is a member of the Gija-speaking peoples from the East Kimberley region in North-western Australia. The Gija painting movement began around 1980 at Turkey Creek (now Warmun) and Peters worked closely with this first generation of ochre painters for 20 years as an educator in indigenous cultural programmes. His painting career began in 1997 when he joined Jirrawun Arts—an innovative Gija collective established by the painter Freddie Timms (b 1946) with Artistic Director Tony Oliver. Their aim was to promote interaction between Gija and gardiya (non-Aborigines), and economic independence by marketing East Kimberley art directly to contemporary art galleries. Peters first exhibited in a group exhibition of Jirrawun art in 1998 and had his first solo exhibition the next year. From then on he exhibited regularly in Sydney and Melbourne, and his paintings have featured in several survey exhibitions.

Peters painted in the distinctive minimalist Turkey Creek manner made famous by his close friend ...


Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages.

The history of plundering and art imperialism may be traced back to ancient times. Looting has been documented in many instances from the sack by the Romans of the Etruscan city of Veii in ...


Christine Clark

(b Ismâilîya, Egypt, Jan 18, 1921; d Sydney, Nov 24, 1973).

Australian painter and museum administrator. He studied at Hornsey School of Art, London, and at Kingston School of Art (1937–40). After serving as a fighter pilot in World War II he continued his studies from 1947 to 1949 at the National Art School, East Sydney Technical College. In 1950 he began working as an attendant at the Art Gallery of New South Wales in Sydney but within a year was appointed assistant to the Director. He held this position, retitled Deputy Director in 1957, until his death. He painted all his life, but his career as a painter was overshadowed by his administrative job. He was responsible for the curating and building up of the fine collection of aboriginal and Melanesian art in the Art Gallery of New South Wales.

During his lifetime Tuckson had only two one-man exhibitions, in 1970 and 1973 at the Watters Gallery, Sydney. Influenced by Picasso, Klee, and de Kooning, American Abstract Expressionists and aboriginal art, his art progressed from portrait and figurative studies through to Abstract Expressionist works. It is for these later works that he is admired as one of Australia’s best ...