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Gordon Campbell

(b Tel Aviv, 1951).

Israeli designer, active in Britain. In 1981 Arad founded, with Caroline Thorman, One Off Ltd, a design studio, workshops and showroom in Covent Garden, London. In 1989, again with Caroline Thorman, he founded Ron Arad Associates, an architecture and design practice in Chalk Farm. In 1994 he established the Ron Arad Studio in Como (Italy). His most famous design is the Rover Chair, which recycled used Rover car seats. He has long had an interest in the use of steel, and the Bookwork bookshelves (...


[Gr. paradeisos; Per. pairidaēza: ‘park’]

An enclosed space open to the sky. The term has been applied to Persian pleasure gardens (see Garden §V 4.), used as royal hunting grounds; to abundant gardens with animals (e.g. the Garden of Eden;); to the enclosed area before or around a church (also called a parvis); and to an enclosed garden in a monastery, either within the cloister or outside and enclosing the cemetery....



Vivian A. Rich

Outdoor place of relaxation and recreation. Parks originated at about the same time, during the 2nd millennium bc, in the ancient Middle East and China as an enclosed hunting reserve for kings and the nobility. Parks remained private recreation grounds until the Industrial Revolution in 19th-century Europe, when social pressures and the need for urban reform led to the creation of parks open to all members of society for social and educational benefits.

The earliest record of a park is that of Tukulti-apil-esharra I (Tiglath-Pileser, King of Assyria; reg 1115–1076 bc), who c. 1100 bc stocked his parks with trees brought from conquered countries. Parks filled with exotic trees and animals became part of the Assyrian cultural heritage. The Assyrian empire fell in the 6th century bc to the Persians, whose parks resembled those of their Assyrian predecessors in design and were used for riding and hunting. Whereas in Persia the park was enjoyed only by the nobility, many of the royal parks of ...


Timothy Taylor

Hoard comprising 165 silver and silver-gilt drinking vessels, dating to the late 5th century bc–4th, dug up in a garden in the Vratsa district, north-west Bulgaria, in 1986. The hoard contains vessels of Persian, Greek, Thracian and ‘Thraco-Getic’ manufacture and appears to represent a collection of known value, buried at a time of unrest and never recovered. The historical context is perhaps the incursion south of the Danube by the Celts at the time of their meeting with Alexander the Great in 335 bc. Vickers (see Cook) considered that the total weight of the hoard (19.91 kg) represented exactly 3600 siglos coins (i.e. the Persian weight standard for silver that was common in Thrace at this time). Taylor (see Cook) noted that this round figure is obtained despite considerable damage (and hence weight-loss) to individual vessels, thereby indicating that the hoard was a tribute payment. Thucydides (History of the Peloponnesian War...


Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

French term used to describe artefacts made in Turkey, or in France by Turkish craftsmen, and by derivation the influence on French design of elements from the Byzantine Empire, the Saljuq Islamic period and the Ottoman Empire. Specific motifs, borrowed from the original Turkish carpets, included arabesques or stylized flowers and vegetal scrolls and decorative animal forms—also included within the generic term ‘grotesques’—from the Renaissance onwards. From the Middle Ages inventories and accounts record objects façon de Turquie imported from the East through the Crusades or the Silk route. In the accounts (1316) of Geoffroi de Fleuri, treasurer to King Philippe V of France, ‘11 cloths of Turkey’ were noted, and in 1471 the inventory of the château of Angers records a wooden spoon and a cushion ‘à la façon de Turquie’. In the 16th century Turkish textiles were highly prized, and Turkish craftsmen were employed in Paris to embroider cloth for ladies’ dresses: in ...