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Helen M. Hills

(b Ciminna, Jan 24, 1634; d Palermo, July 3, 1714).

Italian architect, writer and painter. He trained as a priest in Palermo and entered the Padri Ministri degl’Infermi. Another member of this Order was Giacomo Amato, with whom he worked, although they were not related. While serving as a chaplain Amato studied geometry, architecture, optics and engraving. His earliest known artistic work is a painting on copper of the Miracle of S Rosalia (1663), the patron saint of Palermo. After 1686 he created many works of an ephemeral character. For the feasts of S Rosalia and for important political events he provided designs for lavish triumphal chariots, probably developed from those by Jacques Callot, triumphal arches and other ceremonial apparatus set up on principal roads and piazzas, and he painted hangings, papier-mâché models and massive altarpieces for the cathedral. These works influenced Amato’s permanent architecture. The spiral columns of the campanile of S Giuseppe dei Teatini, Palermo, recall the festival designs of ...


(b Madrid, 1664; d Madrid, Feb 15, 1726).

Spanish architect, painter and writer. He was trained in architecture by the Jesuits and in painting by Claudio Coello and worked mainly as an architect. Two overdoors showing multiple allegorical scenes of the Battle of Lepanto (1721; Madrid, Pal. Arzobisp.) and a St Barbara (1723; Madrid, Mus. Lázaro Galdiano) reveal Ardemans as a talented painter working in the tradition of Francisco Rizi, Juan Carreño de Miranda and Francisco de Herrera the younger, and partially influenced by Luca Giordano. His debt to Coello is apparent in a ceiling fresco attributed to him in the Capilla del Cristo de los Dolores of the Venerable Orden Tercera de San Francisco, Madrid, which shows St Francis riding in a chariot of fire with figures watching from a balcony. Also attributed to Ardemans is the portrait of Pedro Atanasio Bocanegra (c. 1689; Granada, Pal. Arzobisp.)

As an architect, Ardemans belongs to a period of transition, continuing into the 18th century the Baroque tradition of the Madrid school. He worked in Granada (...


W. Georg Rizzi

(Maria Nicolao)

(b Bologna, 1675; d Vienna, March 4, 1735).

Italian architect, decorative artist, stage designer and painter, active also in Austria. He trained as a quadratura painter in Bologna, where he was a pupil of Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole. He was recorded as working as a figure and quadratura painter in Vienna for Prince Montecuccoli in 1695, and shortly afterwards for Count Heřman Jakub Czernin in both Vienna and Prague. He soon became a project designer, when his responsibilities expanded to include architecture. Beduzzi’s first project was probably the design of furnishings for the summer sacristy of Melk Abbey Church (from 1701; see Melk Abbey, §2), which matched the European High Baroque style of the building. Later he designed furnishings and frescoes for the abbey church itself (1711–22) although, contrary to common belief, he did not design the high altar and doorway. He initially painted his frescoes himself, but later these were entrusted to his associates, as in the case of the pilgrimage church of Maria Taferl, near Melk, or to specialists employed by those commissioning the work. Beduzzi’s design for the illusionistic decoration of the church of St Peter (...


(b Türkheim, bapt April 15, 1688; d Augsburg, April 2, 1762).

German painter, teacher, draughtsman and printmaker. His frescoes and altarpieces and his teaching established him as the dominant figure in the art life of Augsburg in the earlier 18th century. He came from a family of well-known Swabian sculptors, cabinetmakers and painters, with whom he probably initially trained. The Bavarian Duke Maximilian Philip paid for him to study (1702–8) with the Munich court painter Johann Andreas Wolff, after which he was summoned by the Elector of the Palatinate to decorate the court church of St Hubertus in Düsseldorf (1708–9; destr.). In 1710 or 1712 Bergmüller frescoed the church of Kreuzpullach, near Wolfratshausen. In his request for permission to marry and for mastership in Augsburg in 1712, he referred to an otherwise undocumented stay in the Netherlands. He settled permanently in the Imperial Free City in 1713 and attended its Reichstädtische Kunstakademie from 1715. From this time he rose to become the most influential painter and teacher in Augsburg, with apprentices coming from beyond the city, including ...


Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos


(b Piacenza, 1705; d Madrid, 18 or Sept 20, 1759).

Italian architect, painter, urban planner and stage designer, active in Spain. He was a pupil in Piacenza of the painters Bartolomeo Rusca (1680–1745), Andrea Galluzzi (fl 1700–1743) and Giovanni Battista Galluzzi (fl c. 1730–40). In 1728 he was one of a number of artists summoned to Spain by the Marchese Annibale Scotti to assist with the construction of royal projects that were already under way and to introduce an Italian influence in place of the French style that had been introduced by the Bourbon kings. He worked at the Aranjuez Palace with the French engineer Léandre Brachelieu (fl c. 1733–9) and then in 1735 became Director of Royal Works of Decoration. He specialized in quadratura painting and, in addition to his work at Aranjuez, where his fresco vault decorations provided fictive trompe l’oeil architectural settings for mythological figures executed by Rusca and ...


(b Speyer, 1709; bur; Mannheim, Dec 21, 1760).

German painter, draughtsman and etcher. Trained by Johann Georg Dathan (1703–c. 1748) in Speyer, he was a court painter in Mannheim from 1733 until his death, from 1755 gallery director and from 1757 a privy councillor. Of the religious works that, as a court painter, he was obliged to produce, the only ones that survive are frescoes (spandrel paintings) depicting the Four Quarters of the World (after 1748; Mannheim, former Jesuit church of SS Ignaz und Franz Xavier) and ceiling paintings in Electress Elizabeth Augusta’s library in Schloss Mannheim.

Brinckmann’s landscapes show two opposing trends. On the one hand, there are small, detailed picturesque landscapes in courtly or rural settings with suitable accessories, often with many figures. According to the terms of his contract, he had to produce two such paintings each year; typical examples are the Court Gardens at Mannheim (1745) and Wolfbrunnens near Heidelberg...


Maria Teresa Caracciolo

(b Rome, March 4, 1750; d Rome, Dec 8, 1799).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was an important history painter and decorator, whose paintings and drawings vary in manner from the Baroque to Neo-classical, and who anticipated Romantic historicism. His subjects are taken from Greek and Roman literature, 16th- and 17th-century religious history and Italian literature of the early and High Renaissance; his many drawings include preparatory studies, caricatures, genre scenes and portraits. He trained under Domenico Corvi at the Accademia di S Luca, where he won prizes with drawings such as the mannered and brilliant Tobias Healing his Blind Father (1766; Rome, Accad. N. S Luca). However, Cades had to leave Corvi’s studio c. 1766, as Corvi apparently resented his pupil’s excessive independence (Lanzi).

In the early 1770s Cades started to receive important commissions. His first large canvases were the Martyrdom of St Benignus (1774; San Benigno Canavese, Fruttuaria Abbey), which continues the classical tradition of late 17th-century Italian painting, and the ...


Dieter Graf

(b Palermo, 1646; d Palermo, 1707).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was trained in Rome, where he was first a pupil of the painter and engraver Pietro del Pò (1610–92), who also came from Palermo. At an unknown date he moved to the studio of Carlo Maratti and, with Giuseppe Passeri, became a favourite pupil. He was clearly linked to Maratti’s workshop for a long period and perfectly assimilated his teacher’s idiom, though without attaining his elegance and precision. In the 1680s Calandrucci executed various decorative frescoes in Roman palazzi: the Four Seasons in the Palazzo Lante; mythological frescoes in the gallery of the Palazzo Muti–Papazzurri; the decoration (untraced) of the gallery of the Palazzo Strozzi–Besso; and a ceiling fresco, the Sacrifice of Ceres, in the Villa Falconieri at Frascati. He also painted idyllic pastoral scenes, among them two pictures at Burghley House, Stamford, England. His secular decorations are more successful than the sometimes clumsy and banal altarpieces and ceiling frescoes that he executed in Roman churches. These include the high altar, the ...


Luisa Arruda

(d 1719).

Portuguese painter. The chief follower of Vicenzo Baccarelli (1682–1745), who introduced the Italian tradition of trompe l’oeil architectural perspectives to ceiling painting in Portugal, he absorbed Italian Baroque models and passed them on to his own pupils, creating a school that continued into the 19th century. Lobo’s only certainly attributable work, the ceiling (after 1705) of the church of Nossa Senhora da Pena in Lisbon, is closely related to late Italian Baroque fresco cycles. It represents an architectural interior of three storeys, with columns, entablatures and balconies with balustrades, filled with small fluttering angels and surmounted by an open sky in which the Coronation of the Virgin is taking place, drawing on a strictly architectural composition. He did not reach the standard of his master in drawing figures but succeeded in giving them a kind of airy lightness, especially the small angels, the only ones that overlie the architectonic elements. Lobo’s pupils, who kept alive the influence of Italian perspective in Portuguese painting, included his son, ...


José Fernandes Pereira

[Nasoni, Niccolò; Nazzoni, Niccolò]

(b San Giovanni, Valderno di Sopra, Tuscany, 1691; d (?Oporto), 1773).

Italian architect, painter and designer, active in Portugal. He was one of the most influential figures of the Portuguese Baroque. Immensely productive and imaginative, he was essentially a decorator who revealed in his buildings the decorative vocabulary of Tuscan Baroque. He was called ‘Dom Nicolau’ by the people of Oporto as a tribute to his inventiveness and originality and to his transformation of Oporto, which he found a medieval town and converted into one of the most Baroque of Portuguese cities. He endowed it with churches and houses based on the formula of a literal translation into granite of the complex ornament in his painting. Nasoni was theatrical in his designs for staircases and portals as well as in the realism of his decorative motifs, and he established in Oporto architecture and wood-carving a tradition of extremely dramatic effects combined with the richest ornamentation seen in Portugal since the Manueline style....


Richard Bösel

(b Trento, Nov 30, 1642; d Vienna, Aug 31, 1709).

Italian painter, architect and stage designer. He was a brilliant quadratura painter, whose most celebrated works, such as the decoration of the church of S Ignazio in Rome, unite painting, architecture and sculpture in effects of overwhelming illusionism and are among the high-points of Baroque church art. He was a Jesuit lay brother and produced his most significant work for the Society of Jesus. This affiliation was fundamental to his conception of art and to his heightened awareness of the artist’s role as instrumental in proclaiming the faith and stimulating religious fervour. The methods he used were those of Counter-Reformation rhetoric, as represented in Ignatius Loyola’s Spirited Exercises (1548). His architectural works are eclectic, and his unconventional combination of varied sources led to bold experiments with both space and structure. His ideas were spread by his highly successful two-volume treatise, Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum (1693–1700).

He received his first artistic training in Trento, with a painter who appears to have worked in the studio of Palma Giovane. He then studied with an unidentifiable pupil of, among others, Andrea Sacchi, who would have been the first to instruct Pozzo in the art of the Roman High Baroque, and he followed this painter to Como and Milan. In Milan Pozzo joined the Society of Jesus on ...


Antonio Vannugli

(b Rome, Jan 14, 1671; d La Granja de San Ildefonso, June 24, 1734).

Italian painter, draughtsman and architect. A pupil of Carlo Maratti, he is first documented in 1702, among the restorers of Raphael’s fresco decorations (1511–14) in the Vatican. His Tarquinius and Lucretia (c. 1705; Holkham Hall, Norfolk) has cold colours and unnatural gestures that recall Guido Reni. Appointed by Pope Clement XI, between 1710 and 1717 Procaccini supervised the tapestry factory in S Michele a Ripa: the Purification of the Virgin (Rome, Vatican, Consistory Hall) is the only extant tapestry made from a cartoon (untraced) by Maratti and an oil painting (untraced) by Procaccini. The Baptism of Cornelius Centurion (1711; Urbino, S Francesco) for the Baptism Chapel in St Peter’s, Rome, was previously attributed to Maratti or Giuseppe Bartolomeo Chiari, but Procaccini apparently based it on sketches supplied by Maratti, who also supervised and revised the work before it was displayed. Pope Pius V Triumphant over the Turks...


(b Lisbon, ?1689; d Lisbon, March 23, 1751).

Portuguese painter. He specialized in ceiling paintings, in which the figures were derived from conventional poses, rather than truly di sotto in sù, and held within a strong architectural framework, a practice introduced into Portugal by the Italian painter Vincenzo Bacherelli (1672–1739). Rolim was a follower of Antonio Lobo, a pupil of Bacherelli, and in 1715 became a member of the Irmandade de São Lucas (Academy of St Luke) in Lisbon. His main activity was in the palaces and churches in Lisbon, which were then being redecorated as a result of the influx of newly discovered Brazilian gold. The only major work by Rolim to survive the Lisbon earthquake of 1755 is the decorative vault (1730) over the chancel of the church of the Paulistas (S Catarina) in Lisbon. After being damaged in 1755, the vault was repainted in 1770 by Simão Batista and Jerónimo de Barros, thus making its merit difficult to determine....


Klára Garas

(b Innsbruck, Dec 25, 1673; d Neisse [Nysa, Poland], Nov 4, 1731).

Austrian architect and painter. In 1695 he became a lay brother of the Jesuit Order in Vienna. Between 1702 and 1709 he was the pupil of Andrea Pozzo, with whom he collaborated on the interior decoration of the Liechtenstein summer palace in Vienna (1705). In 1709–10 he completed the renovation of the church of St Anne in Vienna and of the refectory in the Clementinum, a Jesuit college in Prague; both were projects that had been begun by Pozzo. Between 1712 and 1715 Tausch produced his principal work, the decoration of the former Jesuit church at Trencsén (Trenčín, Slovakia) with illusionistic perspective ceiling paintings depicting the Glorification of St Ignatius of Loyola and St Francis Xavier. Between 1713 and 1719 he produced many paintings and designs for Jesuit church interiors in Hungary, Prague and Germany (Passau). After a journey to Rome (1720), and his modification and decoration of the Jesuit church of S Ignazio at Gorizia (...


(b Toro, ?1694; d Toledo, Dec 13, 1742).

Spanish architect, sculptor and painter. He came from a family of architects and sculptors, which included his father Antonio Tomé (1664–1730) and his two brothers, Andrés Tomé (1688–1761) and Diego Tomé (1696–1732). The family was active in Castile at the beginning of the 18th century; they are first recorded in 1715 as sculptors of the portal of the Universidad de Valladolid, in which a giant order, crowned with statues, dominates the plain façade. The Tomé family was called to Toledo in 1720 to work on the Transparente of the 13th-century cathedral; Narciso appears to have designed the work before his departure on 6 June 1721, when the contract for its execution was issued. He returned to Toledo on 27 October 1721 and was appointed Maestro Mayor of the cathedral. Work was completed by 9 June 1732, when the altar was consecrated.

The Transparente is a ...


Jörg Garms

(b Naples, May 12, 1700; d Caserta, March 1, 1773).

Italian architect, draughtsman and painter. His work represents the transition from Baroque to Neo-classicism, and his correspondence and the number of his extant drawings make him perhaps the best-documented Italian architect of the 18th century. Vanvitelli’s father was the Dutch vedute painter Gaspar van Wittel, and his mother was Roman. Luigi began his career as a history painter, and from 1724 he was employed as a copyist in the fabbrica of St Peter’s in Rome. The extent of his academic training is not clear, but under Antonio Valeri (1648–1736), who succeeded Carlo Fontana as architetto soprastante, Vanvitelli discovered his talent as an architect. Ultimately, however, Valeri was a less significant influence on his work than Fontana or Filippo Juvarra. His first patron was the prefect Cardinal Annibale Albani. As a member of the latter’s retinue, in the 1720s, Vanvitelli went to Urbino, where he participated in the decoration of the Albani Chapel (...


N. A. Yevsina

( Petrovich )

(d 1727).

Russian architect and painter . He worked first in the Ukraine, and in 1701 he was invited to Moscow to enter the service of Peter I, Tsar and Emperor of Russia. He also superintended icon painting in Russia (from 1707). His principal work is the church of the Archangel Gabriel (1701–7), known as the Menshikov Tower, in Moscow. Its composition is based on the traditional ‘octagon on cube’ pattern, comprising two superimposed cubes surmounted by three octagonal stages. The building, which surpassed in height the hitherto tallest structure in the city, the bell-tower of Ivan the Great (1505–8) in the Kremlin, was topped by a dome, a gilded spire and the figure of an angel, also gilded (top storey destr. 1723). West European Baroque forms prevail in the architectural and artistic embellishment of the exterior and interior. Richly moulded decoration and sculptural motifs with angels’ heads together make up an emotionally complex, somewhat capricious picture. It is likely that Zarudny was involved in the building of the church of St John the Warrior (...