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Article

Simonetta Prosperi Valenti Rodinò

(b Busto Arsizio, Nov 11, 1777; d Milan, Dec 15, 1815).

Italian painter, collector and writer. He studied painting at the Accademia di Brera in Milan. Between 1785 and 1801 he lived in Rome, where he met such Neo-classical artists as Angelica Kauffman and Marianna Dionigi (1756–1826) as well as writers, scholars and archaeologists, notably Jean-Baptiste Séroux d’Agincourt, Giovanni Gherardo de Rossi (1754–1827) and Ennio Quirino Visconti. While in Rome he studied Antique and Renaissance works, making copies of the statues in the Museo Pio-Clementino and the frescoes by Raphael and Michelangelo in the Vatican, also furthering his studies of the nude in the Accademia di Domenico Conti and making anatomical drawings of corpses in the Ospedale della Consolazione. On his return to Milan in 1801 he became secretary to the Accademia di Brera, a post he held until 1807. During this period he devoted all his efforts to the restructuring of the Brera, providing it with new statutes and a major library and also founding the adjoining art gallery. He prevented numerous works from being smuggled abroad or dispersed and was responsible for their inclusion in the ...

Article

Ju-Hsi Chou

[Kao Feng-han; hao Nanfu Shanren]

(b Jiaozhou (modern Jiao xian), Shandong Province, 1683; d ?Shandong Province, 1748–9).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, seal-carver, collector and poet. The son of a minor official in charge of local education, Gao developed an interest in poetry, painting and seal-carving in his early youth, when he also began to collect old seals and inkstones. The great poet Wang Shizhen took a liking to him and left instructions before his death that Gao be admitted into the ranks of his disciples. A relative of the poet, Wang Qilei, also provided Gao with some formal instruction in the art of painting, beyond what he could learn from his father, an amateur painter of orchids and bamboo. Gao’s official career did not begin until 1729, when he took up an appointment as assistant magistrate of She xian, Anhui Province. In 1734 a new assignment took him to Taizhou, east of Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province. In 1736, having become entangled in a legal dispute involving a chief commissioner of the salt gabelle, he was briefly imprisoned; this and his deteriorating health, which resulted in the paralysis of his right hand, inevitably led to his resignation from officialdom....

Article

Richard Jeffree

(b Nièvre, 1686; d London, before April 3, 1770).

English painter, printmaker, collector and curator of French birth. A nephew of the French-born portrait painter Louis Goupy (c. 1674–1747), he visited Malta early in his career, producing four panoramic views of the port of Valletta (Melbourne Hall, Derbys), later engraved by Antoine Benoist. In 1711 he was among the first subscribers to Godfrey Kneller’s Academy in London. Goupy’s speciality from then on appears to have been the production of small copies in pastel or gouache of Old Master paintings; they were widely admired and initially fetched high prices. Through his acquaintance with Marco Ricci, Goupy painted sets for productions by the Royal Academy of Music during the 1720s. These included several operas by George Frideric Handel, with whom he developed a close friendship; it ended with the publication of the True Representation and Character of the Charming Brute (1730), the print made after Goupy’s savage caricature (gouache; Cambridge, Fitzwilliam) of the composer as a bewigged hog playing the organ....

Article

Frans Grijzenhout

(bapt Amsterdam, June 21, 1744; d Haarlem, Jan 23, 1831).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, Curator and collector. He was the son of a sculptor of modest means, and presumably he, together with his brothers, first trained in his father’s workshop. In 1765 Wybrand became an active member of the Amsterdam Drawing Academy, where from 1772 to 1774 he won top prizes. Until 1772 he worked as a landscape painter in the Amsterdam wallpaper factory of Johannes Remmers. The staffage in Hendriks’s landscapes was added by Willem Joseph Laquy (1738–98). In 1772 Hendriks bought his own small wallpaper factory in Amsterdam, which he ran until 1776. Around 1775 he made a short trip to England with Hendrik Meijer (1737–93), a Haarlem painter, etcher and wallpaper manufacturer, and in 1776 moved to Haarlem, where he painted still-lifes and made watercolour copies after 17th-century masters for collectors. From 1782 to 1785 Hendriks was in Ede, where he drew and painted mostly landscapes. He returned to Haarlem in ...

Article

Tadashi Kobayashi

[Sansai]

(b Osaka, 1736; d Osaka, 1802). Japanese collector, scholar, poet, painter and calligrapher. As a boy he undertook the study of medicinal herbs at the apothecary’s shop owned by his father and other relatives. According to tradition he began to have an interest in art when he was about five or six and studied with the Kanō-school master Ōoka Shunboku. He also learnt bird-and-flower painting (kachōga) under Kakutei, a Zen priest from Nagasaki. He first met the literati painter Ike Taiga (see Ike family §(1)) when he was 15, and became his pupil. Taiga’s influence is evident in his Bunjinga (literati painting; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)) and also in his calligraphy, in which he excelled. Kenkadō also studied seal-carving with Kō Fuyō, a friend of Taiga, and poetry with Katayama Hokkai. He became one of the most erudite and well-known literati in the region. By profession he was a sake brewer and amassed a fortune, which, however, he forfeited when he incurred the wrath of the authorities. He collected a vast range of objects including calligraphy, old writings and paintings, maps, ceramics, utensils for the ...

Article

(b Paris, Feb 16, 1748; d Paris, Aug 6, 1813).

French dealer, collector, writer, and painter. He was the son of a painter and picture dealer, Pierre Le Brun (c. 1703–1771), and great-nephew of Charles Le Brun. He studied painting with Jean-Baptiste Deshays, François Boucher, and Jean-Honoré Fragonard before becoming a leading connoisseur and art dealer. In 1776 he married the painter Louise-Elisabeth Vigée (see Vigée Le Brun [Vigée-Le Brun; Vigée-Lebrun], Elisabeth-Louise). He was curator of paintings to the King’s younger brother, Charles-Philippe de Bourbon, Comte d’Artois (later Charles X), and to Louis-Philippe-Joseph, Duc d’Orléans (1747–93), and subsequently acted as intermediary for foreign collectors, including Catherine the Great of Russia. His European art networks spanned England, Holland, Flanders, Italy, Spain, and Russia that he exploited to buy and sell art. In addition to his auction catalogues, Le Brun produced a series of erudite books and pamphlets and in some of his articles (1771–81...

Article

(b Ragnit, Lithuania, May 22, 1719; d Rome, Oct 6, 1793).

German patron, dealer, travellers’ guide, antiquarian, writer, painter, engraver and sculptor. Through the patronage of Joachim Christoph Gottsched, in 1741 he was employed as a secretary to the newly founded Königliche Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Pflege der Schönen Wissenschaften in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia) while earning his living by painting miniature portraits. In 1745 he became the master of the royal pages in Kassel, where he studied portrait painting under Johann Heinrich Tischbein (i), lectured on art and experimented with pastel painting. In 1760–62 he accompanied Ulrich Friedrich, Graf von Lynar, on his grand tour, encountering artists and collectors who became important in his later activities as an art dealer and antiquarian. In Rome he met Johann Joachim Winckelmann, who induced him to stay. Initially unable to earn a living by painting and etching, he was supported by Caroline Louise, Margravine of Baden, who commissioned him to buy works of art. He also conducted successful experiments in painting in wax and making imitation gems in glass, though he worked mainly as a travellers’ guide and art dealer. A meeting (...

Article

David Mannings

(b Plympton, Devon, July 16, 1723; d London, Feb 23, 1792).

English painter, collector and writer. The foremost portrait painter in England in the 18th century, he transformed early Georgian portraiture by greatly enlarging its range. His poses, frequently based on the Old Masters or antique sculpture, were intended to invoke classical values and to enhance the dignity of his sitters. His rich colour, strong lighting and free handling of paint greatly influenced the generation of Thomas Lawrence and Henry Raeburn. His history and fancy pictures explored dramatic and emotional themes that became increasingly popular with both artists and collectors in the Romantic period. As first president of the Royal Academy in London, he did more than anyone to raise the status of art and artists in Britain. His Discourses on Art, delivered to the students and members of the Academy between 1769 and 1790, are the most eloquent and widely respected body of art criticism by any English writer.

Although Reynolds’s father, a fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, and master of Plympton Grammar School, had intended that his son train as an apothecary, Joshua chose instead to seek fame as a painter. In ...

Article

David Rodgers

(b London, 1665; d Bloomsbury, May 28, 1745).

English painter, writer and collector. He trained as a portrait painter in the studio of John Riley, later marrying Riley’s niece and living in his house until Riley’s death. The double portrait of Lady Catherine Herbert and her Brother Robert (1698; Wilton House, Wilts), among the finest of his early works, owes an obvious debt to Riley, but by 1711, when Richardson painted Thomas Watson-Wentworth, 1st Marquess of Rockingham (Cambridge, St John’s Coll.), he had developed his own style. Tighter and more formal than that of his master, with a smooth finish described by Sir Joshua Reynolds as ‘cold and hard’, it was better suited to male than female sitters, and his most successful female portrait is that of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1719; Sandon Park, Staffs, priv. col.), a woman of strong mind and independent opinions. Richardson’s career prospered and by 1731 he was described by Vertue as one of the three foremost masters of the day with Charles Jervas and Michael Dahl, and could charge 20 guineas a head and 70 for a full-length; he was certainly the leading London portrait painter after the death of Sir Godfrey Kneller in ...

Article

Italian, 18th century, male.

Active in Venice.

Born 1742; died 1803.

Painter, art restorer, art writer, art dealer.

Giovanni Maria Sasso advised British art collectors on Venetian art. Clients included John Strange, Richard Worsley and Abraham Hume. He was commissioned to compile a Venezia Pittrice...

Article

British, 18th century, male.

Born 1684, in London; died 24 July 1756, in London.

Draughtsman, engraver (etching/burin/mezzotint), reproductions engraver, writer, collector.

George Vertue occupies an important place in the history of English engraving. He came from a poor Catholic family and served an early apprenticeship as a printer before formally studying engraving under Michel van der Gucht. By ...

Article

British, 18th century, male.

Born 24 September 1717; died 2 March 1797, in London.

Draughtsman, collector, writer.

Horace or Horacion Walpole was a pupil of Bernard Lens.

Article

Dutch, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1641, in Amsterdam; died 10 August 1717, in Amsterdam.

Painter, engraver (etching), collector, art writer. Landscapes, winter landscapes.

Nicolaes Cornelisz. Witsen was mayor of Amsterdam and painted winter landscapes in the style of Pieter Bruegel.