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Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Israeli, 20th century, male.

Born 1936, in Tel Aviv.

Painter (mixed media).

Symbolism.

From 1960 to 1964, Gershuni studied at the Avni Institute in Tel Aviv. He won the Ika Brown Prize, awarded by the Museum of Israel in Jerusalem and in 1982 the Sandberg Prize, awarded by the same institution. He has taken part in numerous exhibitions in museums in Israel, which he represented at the Venice Biennale. In ...

Article

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France from 1967.

Born 1920, in Saragossa.

Sculptor, painter, assemblage artist, mixed media.

Saragossa Group.

Ricardo Santamaria studied from 1940 at the colleges of arts and crafts in Saragossa and Barcelona; he spent 1956 travelling in Holland, France and Italy. He started out in around ...