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Luciana Arbace

Italian centre of ceramic production. The town, situated near Savona in Liguria, was a flourishing centre of maiolica production during the Renaissance. It was, however, only during the 17th and 18th centuries that a distinctive style developed. Important families in the pottery business included the Grosso, Chiodo, Corrado, Salomone, Pescio, Seitone, Seirullo, Levantino and Siccardi, all of whom produced large quantities of polychrome plates (e.g. by the Corrado, mid-17th century; Nino Ferrari priv. col., see Morazzoni, pl. 43), albarelli and vases, which were sometimes inspired by silverware and contemporary delftware. In some cases, yellow and an olive green were used on a turquoise ground. Wares were decorated in a calligraphic style with an emphasis on naturalistic motifs including such animals as leverets; this style later evolved into Baroque forms painted with soft, loose brushstrokes.

In the 1920s the Futurist potter Tullio Mazzotti (1899–1971), who took the name Tullio d’Albisola, revived Albisola’s reputation as a pottery centre. The town continued to produce pottery throughout the 20th century, especially the blue-and-white pottery known as Antico Savona. The Museo della Ceramica Manlio Trucco houses a collection of Albisola pottery from every period....


J. Krčálová

[Ger. Butschowitz]

Moravian town 30 km east of Brno, Czech Republic. It is renowned for the Renaissance palace of Jan Šembera Černohorský z Boskovice (1543–97). The original design, Italian in character, is thought to have been by Jacopo Strada and to date from 1567. It was altered in 1579 at the owner’s wish by the master builder Pietro Gabri. The main courtyard was enlarged at the expense of one of the wings, which was transformed into a series of superimposed arcaded galleries, matching the courtyard elevation of two of the remaining three wings. The palace thus lost its original symmetrical layout but gained a three-storey arcaded courtyard of lightness and elegance, Mannerist in style. The palace was also given two lateral courtyards and an extensive Italian garden on its main axis. The whole was bounded by a moat and by a wall with two pairs of gates and with corner bastions that simulate a defensive function, in a typically Mannerist way. When the construction was finished (...



Stefano Della Torre

Italian city in Lombardy, capital of the province of Cremona. Situated on the River Po about 80 km south-east of Milan, the city (population c. 85,000) is famous for its medieval and Renaissance buildings and also for a school of painting that flourished there in the 16th century. The original Gallic settlement at Cremona became a Roman colony in 218 bc, its commercial and strategic importance assured by its position on the Po. The city’s prosperity in antiquity is attested by many fine surviving artefacts (Cremona, Mus. Civ. Ala Ponzone), and the street pattern in the town centre, around the Piazza del Comune, still retains the grid layout of the original Roman nucleus. During the Byzantine period the city expanded to the north, around the present Piazza Garibaldi, to accommodate a military garrison. The city re-emerged in 1098 as one of the Lombard city states, acquiring a circuit of walls that remained unaltered until the 19th century....



Wendy M. Watson

Italian centre of maiolica production. It was the main centre of pottery production in Umbria during the Renaissance. A document of 1358 records the sale of ceramic wares to the convent of S Francesco in nearby Assisi, although potteries probably existed in Deruta even earlier. Between c. 1490 and 1550 production increased in quantity and quality, and plain and decorated wares were supplied to a wide market (see fig.; see also Italy, fig.). By the early 16th century 30 to 40 kilns were in operation, of which only three or four used the metallic gold and red lustres for which Deruta and Gubbio are renowned. As in Gubbio, lustres were applied to local wares and to those brought from such other centres of production as Urbino for this specialized finish. In addition to lustred ceramics, quantities of polychrome maiolica were produced, the predominant colours of which are yellow, orange and blue. In the 17th and 18th centuries the quality of ceramic production declined and was characterized by the manufacture of votive plaques that were placed in churches and homes....



Candace J. Adelson and Thomas Tuohy

Italian city in Emilia-Romagna, situated on the delta of the River Po. It was the centre of a flourishing court under the Este family from the 13th century to the 16th (see Este family). A noted example of early Renaissance urban planning, it was also the centre of a distinctive school of painting and of tapestry-weaving. The city, which now has c. 155,000 inhabitants, is divided into two distinct sections, medieval to the south and Renaissance to the north.

Ferrara lies on the left bank of a subsidiary channel running south from the Po, known as the Po di Ferrara, at the point where this divides into the Po di Volano and the Po di Primaro. The city originated on the right bank within this divide, centred on the cathedral of S Giorgio, built in the 7th century ad (altered). In 986 Ferrara was placed under the rule of Tedaldo, Count of Modena and Canossa (...


Dirk Jonkanski

Popular health resort in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It was formerly a fortified town in the northern Black Forest, laid out with strict regularity according to Renaissance ideals. It owes its origin both to the silver and copper mines in nearby Christophstal and to its position on an important trade route, the Kniebisstrasse. Strategic factors also played a part in the foundation of the town by Duke Frederick I of Württemberg (reg 1593–1608): it was designed to protect the route to his possessions on the Upper Rhine and provide a fortress against the hostile bishopric of Strasbourg.

Duke Frederick entrusted the planning to his architect Heinrich Schickhardt II, already experienced in urban planning, who, in his inventory of possessions and plans up to 1632, reported on the two main designs of 1599 (Stuttgart, Hauptstaatsarchv). The first scheme shows an ideal town on a square plan. Comparable in structure to a Roman ...



David Parsons and Walter Spiegl

Town in Hessen, Germany, the site of a former Benedictine monastery and of the shrine of St Boniface, apostle to the Germans. The abbey church, which became a cathedral in 1752, was a prime architectural example of the Carolingian renaissance before its rebuilding in the 18th century. The monastic complex included the surviving funerary chapel, dedicated to St Michael. The monastery was secularized in 1803. The town was also a notable centre for the production of faience in the 18th century.

David Parsons

The monastery was founded in 744 by Sturm, a Bavarian disciple of the Anglo-Saxon missionaries, under the direction of St Boniface. The site was chosen for its remoteness from the warlike and still ‘pagan’ Saxons and was described as being ‘in the wilderness’, although Sturm gave his bishop an encouraging report on its potential fertility and the adequacy of the water supply. Excavations have shown that the site had previously been surrounded by a rampart and ditch, enclosing some apparently domestic buildings of late or post-Roman date on a different alignment from that adopted for the monastery (...



Jiří Kroupa

[Ger. Eisgrub]

Town in southern Moravia, Czech Republic, known for its manor house and garden. Situated on the border with Lower Austria, about halfway between Brno and Vienna, the estate belonged to the Liechtenstein princes from the mid-13th century to 1945. Before 1588 Hartmann II, Landgrave of Feldberg, had commissioned a house and ornamental garden for use as the family’s country seat. The house was modernized in the 17th century by Charles Eusebius, Prince of Liechtenstein, who employed, among others, the stuccoist Bernardo Bianchi, the masons Pietro Maderna, Pietro Tencalla and Francesco Caratti (1632) and the architects Giovanni Battista I Carlone (ii), Giovanni Giacomo Tencalla from Vienna and Andrea Erna from Brno (1638–41). Further modifications were made by Antonio Beduzzi in the 1730s, by Isidore Canevale in 1766–72 and by Joseph Kornhäusel, who gave the house a Neo-classical façade in 1815. The only part of the house to remain unaltered was the monumental riding school and its stables, designed in ...



José Fernandes Pereira

Town, 40 km from Lisbon, Portugal, entirely dwarfed by its palace-convent. In 1717 John V of Portugal, fulfilling a vow made in 1711, determined to rebuild a friary at Mafra for the Franciscans of Arrábida as thanks to God for the birth of a male heir. However, rather than housing about 13 members of the Order, as originally intended, the project dramatically expanded as the King appointed a vast team of workers. At its head was the German architect known in Portugal as João Frederico Ludovice, who had trained in Rome and had settled in Lisbon from 1701, and under him were the Milanese Carlos Baptista Garbo (fl 1698; d 1724), Custódio Vieira, Manuel da Maia and Ludovice’s son António. The King also sought information about religious buildings in Rome from the Portuguese ambassador there and took advice from the Marquês de Fontes.

Between the laying of the foundation stone (...


Ronald Baxter and Mario D’Onofrio

Benedictine abbey in Lazio, Italy. The birthplace of Western monasticism, it was founded c. ad 529 by St Benedict (c. ad 480–c. 547; see Benedictine Order §1) on the mountain overlooking the town of Casinum, on the site of a pagan temple. Benedict wrote the Rule here after 534, and he was buried alongside his sister, St Scholastica, in the chapel of St John the Baptist. The architectural history of the abbey (see §1 below) is closely linked with historical events. Montecassino was sacked by the Lombards c. 589, and it lay abandoned until c. 718, when a small community was founded there; it was reformed c. 729, and the monastery was rebuilt by Willibald, from Waltham Abbey. The abbey grew more powerful during the 8th century: Carloman, brother of Pepin the Short, was a monk there c. 746, and Paul the Deacon stayed for ten years until his death ...


Jerzy Z. Łoziński

Polish village, c. 70 km south-west of Warsaw. It is the site of one of the few Polish palaces preserved with all its furnishings. The property belonged to the Nieborowski family in the 16th century, and it was redesigned (c. 1695) by Tylman van Gameren as a Baroque palace for the Primate Michał Stefan Radziejowski. It was a rectangular two-storey building with a façade framed by two towers. In 1922 a third storey, designed by Romuald Gutt, was built into the mansard roof. The palace was redecorated in 1766–8 for Prince Michał Kazimierz Ogiński. The Radziwiłł family, who owned the property from 1774 to 1945, also redecorated the interiors several times. The interiors dating to 1766–8 include the stairwell, with walls covered with faience tiles manufactured in Harlingen, and the Rococo Red Salon. Neo-classical decorations (c. 1784–5) by Simon Bogumił Zug, with grotesque wall paintings by ...



Lucia Trigilia

City in the province of Syracuse, eastern Sicily, remarkable for its Baroque architecture and its unified urban plan. In 1693 the fortified medieval town of Noto, built on the slopes of Mount Alveria, was destroyed by an earthquake and afterwards was abandoned by its inhabitants. All that remains of old Noto are substantial ruins of the walls and castle, fragments of buildings and the royal gate. The modern city lies c. 10 km from the Ionian coast, between Pachino and Syracuse, 7 km from the old town. The decision to rebuild Noto on a different site, known as the fief of the Meti, is attributed to Giuseppe Lanza, Duke of Camastra (1630–1708), who was appointed by the viceroy and given wide powers for the reconstruction of the town. He solicited the technical advice of various experts, including the Flemish military engineer Carlos Grunembergh. Even as the city’s construction began, however, with wooden temporary buildings and the foundation of the churches, including those of the SS Crocifisso and S Niccolò, part of the population opposed the relocation of the city. One reason was that the new construction was not at the upper level of the Meti (the ‘Pianazzo’) chosen by Camastra but at the lower level of the plateau....


L. V. Kazakova

[Petergof; Petrodvorets, 1944–c. 1994]

Russian town, palace and park 29 km west of St Petersburg on the Gulf of Finland. It was founded by Peter I in 1709 as his summer residence and is renowned for its cascades and fountains. In 1715–24 a two-storey palace was built with a central section flanked by two projecting bays; the original architect is unknown, but further construction followed the designs of Le Blond family §(3) and Niccolò Michetti. Empress Elizabeth (reg 1741–62) commissioned Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli to enlarge the palace (see Rastrelli family, §2). Between 1745 and 1755 he raised the building to three storeys and added three-storey wings facing the Upper Park, with galleries ending in two domed pavilions.

Of the early 18th-century interiors, the Tsar’s study, with oak panelling in Rococo style by Nicolas Pineau, remains unchanged, as does the oak staircase. Rastrelli designed five staterooms and a series of reception-rooms, which were sumptuously decorated with gilded wood-carving, ceilings painted by ...



Anabel Thomas

Italian city in Tuscany, 50 km south of Siena. The small hamlet of Corsignano (birthplace of Pius II; see Piccolomini family, §1) was transformed into the beautiful city of Pienza during one of the most intense periods of urban renewal in Renaissance Italy. The newly elected Pope made a return visit there in February 1459 and found it peopled by individuals who were ‘bowed down by old age and illness’. He determined to ‘build there a new church and a palace … to leave as lasting as possible a memorial of his birth’. In June 1462 Pius requested the senate in Rome to rename the town Pienza (a name deriving from his own) and to raise it to the level of a city state. During the mid-15th century the town was officially in the possession of the Sienese, but with its elevation and change of name it effectively came under the rule of Rome....



D. O. Shvidkovsky

[Tsarskoye Selo]

Former summer residence of the emperors of Russia, 24 km south of St Petersburg; also the adjacent town. It consists of several imperial and private palaces set in parks: the Bol’shoy (‘great’; or Yekaterininsky, after Catherine I) Palace, surrounded by the Stary (‘old’; or Regulyarny, ‘regular’) Gardens and the Novy (‘new’; or Zhivopisny, ‘picturesque’) Gardens; the Aleksandrovsky Palace; and, near by, the Boblovsky Palace (destr. World War II), the Paley Palace, the Fyodorovsky Gorod (a barracks) and other buildings. A village was built close by in the mid-18th century, becoming a town in 1780. In Soviet times the town was renamed Pushkin, in honour of the poet.

Emperor Peter I presented the estate to his wife Catherine after his victories against Sweden: the first building, a stone villa, was commissioned in 1718 to be built by the German architect J. Braunstein in a northern Baroque style. J. Roosen laid out a Dutch garden at the same period. In ...



Daniel de Souza Leão Vieira

Brazilian city, capital of the state of Pernambuco, in northeastern Brazil (population c. 1.6 million), and located at the estuary of Capibaribe and Beberibe rivers, Recife has been the sea port of Olinda since 1537.

Following an invasion by the Dutch West India Company in 1630, Recife became the seat of Dutch rule in Brazil. Its urban development benefited from the construction of Mauritsstadt, a planned town built in front of Recife, on the island of Antônio Vaz. The Dutch heritage from this period includes a rich visual production made upon accurate rendering of nature, as in the landscape imagery by Frans Post (see Post, §2), and upon culturally biased descriptions, as in the ethnographic paintings by Albert Eckhout (see also Nassau, House of family, §1).

After the Dutch were driven out, in 1654, Recife continued to grow, and, by the second half of the 19th century, it was one of the major commercial and cultural centers of Brazil....


Paolo Carpeggiani

Model city in the Po Valley in North Italy. Lying 31 km south-west of Mantua, it was the capital of the small duchy of Vespasiano Gonzaga, the last prince of a cadet branch of the family that ruled Mantua. It was laid out in the 16th century on a modified grid-plan and planned largely by Duke Vespasiano Gonzaga as a monument to himself. In 1554 Vespasiano began to fortify the town. In this project, completed in 1579, Gerolamo Cattaneo (c. 1500–c. 1558) and Giovan Pietro Bottaccio (fl 1558–84) served as military engineers. The old castle, which was all that survived of the original medieval settlement, became the citadel of a complex defensive system designed according to the most advanced principles of military architecture: polygonal perimeter, steeply sloping brick walls reinforced inside by earth embankments, and protruding wedge-shaped bastions.

In its basic plan Sabbioneta is almost unchanged today. Two gates lead into the town: the Porta della Vittoria (...


Andreas Falz

German town in the province of Baden-Württemberg, c. 10 km west of Heidelberg. During the 17th and 18th centuries Schloss Schwetzingen was the summer residence of the electors of the Palatinate. The 72-ha castle gardens were created between 1753 and 1777 in the reign of the Elector Charles Theodore, and they remain among the finest in Europe. The juxtaposition of the strictly geometrical Baroque-style French garden and the surrounding English landscape garden gives the castle grounds their special charm. The French garden, which was re-created from 1978 on the basis of the original 18th-century plans, was laid out by the court gardener Johan Ludwig Petri and the architect Nicolas de Pigage, while the landscape gardens were designed by Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell. Pigage erected a series of splendid buildings in the park, among them a bath pavilion (1773), a mosque (1778), a monopteral Temple of Apollo (...


Jiří Kroupa

[Ger. Austerlitz]

Czech town, c. 20 km east of Brno in southern Moravia, renowned for its palace. It was settled at the beginning of the 13th century by an order of German knights who built a fortress on the site of the present palace; parts of the earlier structure are still visible in the grounds. The order remained until 1411, when there was a change of ownership. At the beginning of the 16th century the fortress was purchased by the noble Kounic family (subsequently the counts and princes of the Kaunitz-Rietburg dynasty), who converted it into a Renaissance palace at the end of the century. By the end of the 17th century Count Dominik Andreas Kaunitz (1655–1705) was intent on further renovation. The first plans for this purpose were prepared c. 1688 by Enrico Zuccalli, an architect at the Bavarian court, who intended to leave parts of the Renaissance palace almost unchanged, creating a new east wing modelled on Gianlorenzo Bernini’s façade of the Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi, Rome. Zuccalli’s plan remained unrealized, however, and in ...


Javier Rivera and José Manuel Cruz Valdovinos

Spanish city and administrative capital of the province of Castile and León. It is situated in north central Spain, at the confluence of the River Pisuerga with the Esgueva. It flourished during the Renaissance and Baroque periods, when it was an important centre for work in gold and silver.

Valladolid was founded in the mid-8th century bc by the Vaccii, a Celtic–Iberian people from Soto de la Medinilla. From the 1st century ad the area was occupied by the Romans, who established such villas as the Villa de Prado, reconstructed in the 4th century (mosaics and remains in Valladolid, Mus. Arqueol.). There is evidence of Germanic settlements from the 5th century, and some Visigothic groups remained after the Muslim invasion. In 1072 the site was given to Conde Pedro Ansúrez (d 1119) by Alfonso VI, King of León and Castile (reg 1065–1109). The Villa Condal consisted of a palace, a bridge over the River Pisuerga, a hospital, the church of Maria la Antigua, and the collegiate church of S Maria la Mayor (11th–12th century; Romanesque remains ...