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D. O. Shvidkovsky

Imperial summer residence and accompanying town, 25 km south of St Petersburg and 3 km from Pushkin, Russia. In the mid-18th century the estate was used for hunting, but in 1777 Catherine II (reg 1762–96) gave it to her son, the future Emperor Paul I (reg 1796–1801), and his wife, the Grand Duchess Mariya Fyodorovna (d 1828), in honour of the birth of their first son, later Alexander I (reg 1801–25). Mariya Fyodorovna effectively became the mistress of the estate, engaging architects and gardeners, and virtually all the buildings were erected and the parks planned in her lifetime. In 1777–80 two small wooden houses, known as Paullust and Mariental, were built, and a modest park in the English taste was laid out with exotic pavilions, probably based on pattern-books by William Chambers (1757) and William Halfpenny (1752 and 1755). Pavlovsk is more a monument, however, to a single era, ...