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Ian M. E. Shaw

Ancient Egyptian art style that takes its name from Amarna, (Tell) el-, the site of the capital city during the reigns of Akhenaten (reg c. 1353–c. 1336 bc) and Smenkhkare (reg c. 1335–c. 1332 bc). Amarna-style painting and sculpture were characterized by a move away from the traditional idealism of Egyptian art towards a greater realism and artistic freedom. This new sense of vigour and naturalism is most apparent in surviving fragments of paintings from the walls and floors of palaces (Cairo, Egyp. Mus., and Oxford, Ashmolean; see Egypt, ancient §X 2.). The statuary and reliefs, mainly from el-Amarna, Thebes and Hermopolis Magna, represent the royal family and their subjects in a style that was initially grotesque and often crude, as the artists struggled to come to terms with the new approach (see Egypt, ancient §IX 3., (viii)). However, they eventually reached a high degree of sophistication and beauty, exemplified by the painted limestone bust of Queen ...



Leo de Ren, Claire Dumortier, Erik Duverger, G. van Hemeldonck, and Leon Voet

[Flem. AntwerpenFr. Anvers]

Belgian city and port on the River Scheldt, c. 90 km from the sea, with a population of c. 465,000 (1992). In the 16th and 17th centuries it was one of the leading centres of art in northern Europe, with such painters as Quinten Metsys, Peter Paul Rubens and Jacob Jordaens. Prints were published there, and it was a centre for the production of ceramics, tapestry, furniture and objects of vertu, the last encouraged by the establishment of the European diamond trade from the late 15th century. Antwerp was considerably damaged in World War II. It is now a leading international port and a sprawling industrial town.

F. Prims: Geschiedenis van Antwerpen, 29 vols (Brussels and Antwerp, 1927–49)Antwerpen in de XVIIIde eeuw: Instellingen, economie, cultuur, Genootschap voor Antwerpse Geschiedenis (Antwerp, 1952)H. Gerson and E. H. ter Kuile: Art and Architecture in Belgium, 1600–1800, Pelican Hist. A. (Harmondsworth, 1960)...


Thorsten Opper

Roman town in Italy on the southern slope of Mt Vesuvius immediately to the north of Pompeii, sometimes identified with the ancient Pagus Augustus Felix Suburbanus (one of the town's outer districts). Excavations carried out mainly in the later 19th century brought to light some thirty villae rusticae, part of an intense network of smallholdings situated on the lower slopes of the volcano and the adjacent Sarno plain, and plentiful evidence of intense agricultural activity, principally the production of wine and olive oil. Probably due to its fertility, the area was resettled after the eruption; baths dating to the 2nd or 3rd century ad were discovered in Via Casone Grotta. Most of the villas were reburied after the excavations and documentation tends to be sparse. Finds are now mostly in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples, the Louvre in Paris and the Metropolitan Museum in New York, as well as a number of private collections; more recent discoveries are exhibited in a new local museum. The nearby Villa Regina is the only structure that can be visited; it has wine production facilities and large storage areas....


Delia Kottmann

Italian village in Lazio, north of Rome, known for its church. The church of SS Anastasius and Nonnosus is all that remains of the 6th-century Benedictine monastery, which submitted to Cluny in ad 940. Apart from some re-used fragments, the architecture is Romanesque, with a Cosmati pavement in opus sectile as well as an ambo and ciborium. The church is famous for its wall paintings from the first quarter of the 12th century. The apse and its adjacent walls, showing the 24 elders, are influenced by Romano–Christian motifs. Christ in the middle of the conch is flanked by Peter and Paul in a Traditio legis depiction, with a procession of lambs below. Underneath, Maria Regina has to be reconstructed in the middle, between two conserved angels followed by female saints in a Byzantine manner. No Romano–Christian iconography seems to have influenced the vast apocalyptic cycle painted on the side walls of the transept. A band of prophets runs beneath the roof on all the walls of the transept. An inscription in the apse indicates three Roman painters....



Keith N. Morgan

American town and former artists’ colony in the state of New Hampshire. Situated on a line of hills near the eastern bank of the Connecticut River c. 160 km north-west of Boston, Cornish looks across to Windsor, VT, and Mt Ascutney. It was settled in 1763 as an agrarian community, but its population was rapidly reduced during the migration to the cities in the second half of the 19th century. From 1885 until around the time of World War I, Cornish was the summer home of a group of influential sculptors, painters, architects, gardeners, and writers. For this coherent group, the Cornish hills symbolized an ideal natural environment that reflected the classical images so important in their work. The sculptor who first spent a summer in Cornish in 1885, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, bought his summer residence there in 1891, and he was soon followed by the painters Henry Oliver Walker (...


Dimitris Plantzos

Greek city situated at the foothills of Mt Olympus in northern Greece (district of Pieria), 14 km south of modern city of Katerini. It was an important Macedonian political and cultural centre from the Classical to the Roman periods (6th century bc–4th century ad). By the 6th century bc it seems that the Macedonians were gathering at Dion in order to honour the Olympian gods, chiefly Zeus; according to myth, Deukalion, the only man to survive the flood at the beginning of time, built an altar to Zeus as a sign of his salvation. His sons, Macedon and Magnes, lived in Pieria, near Olympus, and became the mythical ancestors of the Macedonians. The altar allegedly erected by Deukalion remained the centre of the cult life at Dion throughout its history.

King Archelaos of Macedon (c. 413–399 bc) organized athletic and dramatic contests in the framework of the religious celebrations, following the practice of the Greeks in the south, such as at the great sanctuaries of Olympia and Delphi. Philip II (...


Dimitris Plantzos


Greek city situated on the island of Crete, by the north-west foothills of mount Psiloritis (anc. Ida), 30 km south-east of the present-day city of Rethymnon. It was a centre for Aegean and Greek culture from the Prehistoric to the Byzantine periods (4th millennium bc–7th century bc).

Ancient Eleutherna is a typical example of a Cretan polis (city) inhabited continuously from at least from the 9th century bc (the so-called ‘Dark Age’ of Greek history) to the late Roman and Byzantine period (6th–7th century bc). Even before that, archaeological finds suggest the existence of a continuous presence on the site from the late Neolithic (4th millennium bc) through to a flourishing Minoan site of the 3rd to 2nd millennia bc. Although later construction all but eliminated traces of prehistoric architecture, there is still significant evidence to confirm unbroken habitation. In historical times (9th century...


Caroline Boyle-Turner

French village on the Aven River in Brittany, 260 km west of Paris and 7 km north of the Bay of Biscay. Before the 20th century its protected tidal harbour made it a busy commercial port for the transport of flour, firewood, blocks of quarried granite, sand, and fish. Though it attracted artists from the 1860s onwards, it is most famous for the colony of artists that gathered there around Paul Gauguin (see fig.) in the late 1880s and early 1890s. A French artist, Eugène Martin, spent some time in Pont-Aven in the 1850s making drawings that were later turned into prints. According to Emile Bernard, the first artist to paint in Pont-Aven was the Dutchman Herman van den Anker (1832–83). His Salon paintings in the 1860s faithfully depict the costumes and customs of Breton peasants, whose clothes point precisely to Pont-Aven as their village of origin. In ...



Patricia G. Berman

Danish fishing community located on the northernmost tip of Jutland and site of an artists’ colony. In 1833 Martinus Rørbye first painted epic views of the land and sea around Skagen such as Beach Scene in Skagen (1834; Skagen, Skagens Mus.), setting a precedent for Danish marine painters. The painter and poet Holger Drachmann (1846–1908) and Karl Madsen (1855–1938), later a pre-eminent art historian and Director of the Dansk Kunstmuseum, visited the town in 1871, initiating an artists’ community that would develop into one of the most important summer artists’ colonies in late 19th-century Scandinavia. Carl Locher (1851–1915), Viggo Johansen and the Norwegian Christian Skredsvig followed in the mid-1870s. Michael Ancher first visited Skagen in 1874 and in 1880 married the painter Anna Ancher [née Brøndum], who was born there (see Ancher family §(1)). The Hotel Brøndum, which was run by Anna’s family, became the centre of the artists’ colony. At Skagen Michael Ancher painted such works as ...


St Ives  

Adrian Lewis

English coastal town in Cornwall and an artistic centre in the late 19th century and the 20th. A gallery and artists’ club had been established in St Ives by the late 1880s, paralleling the establishment of Newlyn, another Cornish coastal town, as an art colony. Its initial attractions seem to have resided as much in establishing a cultural distance from London and other urban centres, confirmed by the preference among artists in St Ives for Cornish landscape and genre subjects, as in the potential of the tourist trade. In 1927 the St Ives Society of Artists was established with its own sales gallery; members also submitted work annually to the Royal Academy in London. Landscapes and seascapes predominated in the work of Borlase Smart (1881–1947), Julius Olsson (1864–1942) and John Park (1880–1962).

As with the Parisian avant-garde’s depiction of late 19th-century Brittany as remote from civilization, the myth of St Ives became entwined with the British assimilation of modernist values, such as simplicity of life style, innocence or naivety of vision and the integrity of the handmade. For example, ...


Dillian Gordon

Portable diptych (London, NG), painted on both sides (each wing 475×292 mm, egg tempera on oak), made c. 1395–9. The Wilton Diptych is named after Wilton House, near Salisbury, Wiltshire, its location from 1705 until 1929 when it was acquired by the National Gallery, London. Its subject-matter is straightforward, but its meaning enigmatic, its purpose and patron a matter of debate, and its painter and his nationality unknown.

The interior of the left wing depicts King Richard II (reg 1377–99) with SS Edmund, Edward the Confessor, and John the Baptist, while the exterior has the royal arms of England and France impaled with the arms of Edward the Confessor, with a helmet, cap of maintenance, and lion statant guardant. The right wing is painted with the Virgin and Child with angels on the interior and the exterior has a white hart lodged, chained, and gorged with a crown.

In the interior of the left wing Richard II kneels; he wears his personal emblem of the white hart, and a collar of double broomcods. He is presented by St Edward the Confessor, King of England (...