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Catherine Brisac

French town and château some 8 km south-east of Paris, in the département of Val-de-Marne. The château was built (1680–86) for Anne-Marie-Louise d’Orléans, Duchesse de Montpensier (1627–93), by Jacques Gabriel IV. His design was a simple one, with strong horizontal lines countered by tall rectangular windows and rusticated quoins to the shallow projecting bays. Artists employed on the interior decoration included the painters Antoine Coypel, Gabriel Blanchard, Jean Le Moyne and Adam Frans van der Meulen and the sculptor Etienne Le Hongre. The grounds were laid out by André Le Nôtre. Used as a hunting-lodge by Louis XV, King of France, from 1740, the château was enlarged by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in several campaigns (1742–52), the additions including a gallery, a theatre and various garden buildings. Much sculpture was commissioned for the grounds, which were remodelled, including work by René-Michel Slodtz and Edmé Bouchardon. In ...


Alena Adlerová

[formerly Carlsbad; Karlsbad]

Town in the Czech Republic, once a centre of glass engraving and stonecutting. The tradition for engraving was established there in the 18th century by such artists as Andreas Teller (1754–1809) and Andreas Mattoni (1779–1864). In the 19th century well-known engravers included A. H. Pfeiffer (1801–66), Emanuel Hoffmann (1819–78) and his son Johann Hoffmann (1840–1900). The most renowned glass enterprise was the workshop and merchandise business founded in 1857 by Ludwig Moser (1833–1916), who employed a number of leading engravers from Karlovy Vary and northern Bohemia. During the Art Nouveau movement the works excelled in deep, floral engraving, and extended its repertory to include coloured, facet-cut glass. While glass coloured by rare pigments became a speciality, the firm also continued to produce high-quality tableware. From 1918 to 1939 it collaborated with a number of Czech, German and Austrian artists, including ...



Gjergj Frashëri

Capital city of Albania and centre of production for furniture, glass, wood-carving and ceramics. The ‘Misto Mame’ Woodwork Combine was initially established in 1947 as a small workshop for furniture production. By 1951 it had changed its name to Ndërmarrja e Përpunimit të Drurit ‘Misto Mame’ (‘Misto Mame’ woodworking enterprise) and had greatly increased in size. In 1973 the combine adopted its present name and opened a group of factories. The most important sector within the combine is the furniture production unit, which produces complete suites of bedroom furniture, bookcases, sideboards, tables etc. The majority of products have matt or semi-matt veneer finishes of beech, maple, walnut, poplar, elm and cherry. The Milde Furniture Factory produces armchairs, sofas and wall panelling for domestic interiors and public buildings. Many of the products are covered with textiles such as damask, produced locally. The Factory of Furniture for Institutions produces one-off, usually commissioned, pieces of furniture and decorative items. The Department of Parquet Tiles produces flooring for many different interiors. The combine has its own Technological Bureau and collaborates with such institutes of interior design as the Institute of Building Project Studies and Designs No.1 and the Bureau of Wood Project Studies and Design in Tiranë. Some of the combine’s production is exported....


Mairead Dunlevy

Irish city and centre of glass production. The earliest Waterford glass factory was established in Gurteens, near Waterford, during the 1720s, and production included lead-glass drinking vessels with pedestal stems, garden glasses, vials, bottles and other green glassware. The factory was closed about 1739.

In 1783 the Waterford Glass House was established by the merchants George Penrose and William Penrose, who employed John Hill and other glassmakers from Stourbridge, England. In 1799 the factory was taken over by three partners, James Ramsey (d c. 1810), Jonathan Gatchell (1752–1823) and Ambrose Barcroft, who in 1802 extended the works and installed new machinery. In 1823 George Gatchell became manager, and the works remained in the family until it closed. The factory produced cut, engraved and moulded glass of excellent quality, and c. 1832 steam power was installed in the factory, which allowed an increase in production.

The outstanding qualities of Waterford glass are its clarity and the precise cutting. The typical early Waterford decanter is barrel-shaped, has three or four neck rings and a wide, flat, pouring lip. Stoppers of Waterford production are almost invariably mushroom-shaped with a rounded knop below the stopper neck. From the cut patterns on marked Waterford decanters it would seem that popular designs included the pillar and arch embellished with fine diamonds. The numerous drawings of Waterford designs (Dublin, N. Mus.) made between ...