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A. G. Gertsen

[Turk. Baghče sarǎy: ‘Garden palace’]

Ukrainian city in the Crimea, 35 km north-east of Sevastopol, which was the capital of the Tatar in the Crimea throughout the rule of the Giray dynasty (c. 1423–1783). It developed from an important burial ground of the Giray khans, but the Garden Palace (1503–19), founded by Khan Mengli Giray I (reg 1466–1514 with interruptions) and covering over 4 ha in the valley of the River Churuk-Su, represents the historical core of the city. The earliest structure is the Demirkap (‘Iron gate’) with an inscription referring to Mengli Giray and the date 1503. It is thought to be by the Italian architect Aleviz Novy or Aloisio (fl early 16th century), builder of the cathedral of the Archangel Michael (wooden church, 1333; rebuilt 1505–8) in the Moscow Kremlin. Little is known of the layout of the palace in the 16th and 17th centuries as it was badly damaged by fire in ...



Asok Kumar Das

City in Rajasthan, India. It flourished in the 17th–18th centuries ad as capital of the state of the same name. It contains a wide variety of palaces, mansions (hāvelīs), temples, stepwells and gardens. The city is dominated by the Taragarh hill-fort, founded by the Rajput king Rao Deva in 1241; the palace on the hillside below contains many attractive structures, including the Ratan Mahal, built by Rao Ratan Singh (reg 1607–31), the beautifully painted Chatar Mahal by Rao Chatarsal (reg 1631–58) and the Chitra Shali by Rao Umed Singh (reg 1739–70) (see Indian subcontinent, §III, 7, (ii), (b)). Bundi was also a centre of manuscript painting from the 17th century (see Indian subcontinent, §V, 4, (iii), (c)).

H. C. Ray: Dynastic History of Northern India, 2 vols (Calcutta, 1931) K. C. Jain: Ancient Cities and Towns of Rajasthan (Delhi, 1972)...


Michael Spens

Capital of Australia. Founded as a result of the federation of the Australian colonies (1901), the city (population c. 270,000) is noted for its urban plan, a remarkable combination of garden city and Beaux-Arts ideals. The inland site for Canberra was established in the Australian Capital Territory c. 250 km south-west of Sydney and c. 480 km north-east of Melbourne. An international competition for the design of the urban plan was won in 1912 by the American architect Walter Burley Griffin. His scheme (for illustration see Griffin family) combines formality, befitting the ceremony of state, and informality, reflecting the democratic structure of Australian society. The plan is closely related to the undulating topography of the site, with prominent hills employed as radial hubs for a system of formal axes that are in turn aligned to distant topographical features. The focus of the entire plan is Capital Hill, site of the parliament, which forms the apex of the Parliamentary (or Federal) Triangle where the principal government buildings are located. A central, tree-lined land axis links Capital Hill with Mt Ainslie to the north (site of the Australian War Memorial, ...



K. A. Ottenheym

[Fr. Cleves; Dut. Kleef; Ger. Kleve]

German town in North Rhine–Westphalia. In 1647 it became the official residence of John Maurice, Count of Nassau-Siegen, when he was appointed Stadholder of Cleve by the Elector of Brandenburg. From 1663 the Count restored and rebuilt Schloss Schwanenburg, and from 1671 he built the Prinzenhof as a successor to the Mauritshuis (1633, by Jacob van Campen and Pieter Post) in The Hague. The landscaped parks created by the Stadholder around the town were far more ambitious: a star-shaped network of paths and roads, begun in 1650, made use of the natural features of the land, with the visitor’s attention repeatedly caught by points of interest. Pleasure grounds were established next to the Prinzenhof, including the Springenberg, with the amphitheatre, and the neighbouring Fontana Miranda. This was an important attraction consisting of a series of ascending terraces, provided with fountains and memorials, rising from an ornamental pond with islands and a canal and culminating at its highest point in a semicircular colonnade. Two statues in the garden, the ...



Keith N. Morgan

American town and former artists’ colony in the state of New Hampshire. Situated on a line of hills near the eastern bank of the Connecticut River c. 160 km north-west of Boston, Cornish looks across to Windsor, VT, and Mt Ascutney. It was settled in 1763 as an agrarian community, but its population was rapidly reduced during the migration to the cities in the second half of the 19th century. From 1885 until around the time of World War I, Cornish was the summer home of a group of influential sculptors, painters, architects, gardeners, and writers. For this coherent group, the Cornish hills symbolized an ideal natural environment that reflected the classical images so important in their work. The sculptor who first spent a summer in Cornish in 1885, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, bought his summer residence there in 1891, and he was soon followed by the painters Henry Oliver Walker (...



David Aradeon

[Yoruba Eko]

Capital city of Nigeria, on the Gulf of Guinea. Aerial photography reveals a mosaic of land use patterns: large traditional compound spaces in such neighbourhoods as Oke Arin and Oshodi are separated, by British urban planning norms, from the ‘garden city’, one-acre lots in Ikoyi and Ikeja, where the colonial officers lived. Tenuous roads and bridges link Lagos Island with the mainland, including Apapa, through Iddo Island, on which the railway terminal and old Ijora power station are sited.

Lagos has a dual heritage, based first on the Idejo, land-owning chiefs and descendants of the Awori Yoruba founders from Ife, and then on the Edos (see Edo), who established a military camp in the second half of the 16th century at Enu Owa. The crowning of an Oba of Lagos, or the capping of any white cap chief, depends on the performance of sacred rites at Enu Owa for both spiritual blessing and legal validity. Edo rule also instituted a political and social structure, of which the Prime Minister (Eletu Odibo) is the most important official....



Jiří Kroupa

[Ger. Eisgrub]

Town in southern Moravia, Czech Republic, known for its manor house and garden. Situated on the border with Lower Austria, about halfway between Brno and Vienna, the estate belonged to the Liechtenstein princes from the mid-13th century to 1945. Before 1588 Hartmann II, Landgrave of Feldberg, had commissioned a house and ornamental garden for use as the family’s country seat. The house was modernized in the 17th century by Charles Eusebius, Prince of Liechtenstein, who employed, among others, the stuccoist Bernardo Bianchi, the masons Pietro Maderna, Pietro Tencalla and Francesco Caratti (1632) and the architects Giovanni Battista I Carlone (ii), Giovanni Giacomo Tencalla from Vienna and Andrea Erna from Brno (1638–41). Further modifications were made by Antonio Beduzzi in the 1730s, by Isidore Canevale in 1766–72 and by Joseph Kornhäusel, who gave the house a Neo-classical façade in 1815. The only part of the house to remain unaltered was the monumental riding school and its stables, designed in ...


Jerzy Z. Łoziński

Polish village, c. 70 km south-west of Warsaw. It is the site of one of the few Polish palaces preserved with all its furnishings. The property belonged to the Nieborowski family in the 16th century, and it was redesigned (c. 1695) by Tylman van Gameren as a Baroque palace for the Primate Michał Stefan Radziejowski. It was a rectangular two-storey building with a façade framed by two towers. In 1922 a third storey, designed by Romuald Gutt, was built into the mansard roof. The palace was redecorated in 1766–8 for Prince Michał Kazimierz Ogiński. The Radziwiłł family, who owned the property from 1774 to 1945, also redecorated the interiors several times. The interiors dating to 1766–8 include the stairwell, with walls covered with faience tiles manufactured in Harlingen, and the Rococo Red Salon. Neo-classical decorations (c. 1784–5) by Simon Bogumił Zug, with grotesque wall paintings by ...


City parks are areas of land specifically allocated for public recreation. The word ‘park’ was originally used to define enclosed pieces of land stocked with wild animals and managed for hunting purposes. Parks such as the Tiergarten in Berlin, the Bois de Boulogne in Paris, and the Royal Parks in London were established as royal preserves in or adjacent to capital cities. Informal public access to the London parks was allowed from the early 17th century.

Boston Common, established in 1634 as pasture owned in common by the citizens, is the oldest public urban park in North America. The first walkway on the Common was created in 1675 and the first tree-lined pedestrian mall was planted in 1728. Equally, Mount Auburn Cemetery (1831) in Cambridge, MA, and subsequent urban cemeteries of the period, performed many of the functions of a public park. But the 843-acre Central Park (...


D. O. Shvidkovsky

Imperial summer residence and accompanying town, 25 km south of St Petersburg and 3 km from Pushkin, Russia. In the mid-18th century the estate was used for hunting, but in 1777 Catherine II (reg 1762–96) gave it to her son, the future Emperor Paul I (reg 1796–1801), and his wife, the Grand Duchess Mariya Fyodorovna (d 1828), in honour of the birth of their first son, later Alexander I (reg 1801–25). Mariya Fyodorovna effectively became the mistress of the estate, engaging architects and gardeners, and virtually all the buildings were erected and the parks planned in her lifetime. In 1777–80 two small wooden houses, known as Paullust and Mariental, were built, and a modest park in the English taste was laid out with exotic pavilions, probably based on pattern-books by William Chambers (1757) and William Halfpenny (1752 and 1755). Pavlovsk is more a monument, however, to a single era, ...


L. V. Kazakova

[Petergof; Petrodvorets, 1944–c. 1994]

Russian town, palace and park 29 km west of St Petersburg on the Gulf of Finland. It was founded by Peter I in 1709 as his summer residence and is renowned for its cascades and fountains. In 1715–24 a two-storey palace was built with a central section flanked by two projecting bays; the original architect is unknown, but further construction followed the designs of Le Blond family §(3) and Niccolò Michetti. Empress Elizabeth (reg 1741–62) commissioned Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli to enlarge the palace (see Rastrelli family, §2). Between 1745 and 1755 he raised the building to three storeys and added three-storey wings facing the Upper Park, with galleries ending in two domed pavilions.

Of the early 18th-century interiors, the Tsar’s study, with oak panelling in Rococo style by Nicolas Pineau, remains unchanged, as does the oak staircase. Rastrelli designed five staterooms and a series of reception-rooms, which were sumptuously decorated with gilded wood-carving, ceilings painted by ...



D. O. Shvidkovsky

[Tsarskoye Selo]

Former summer residence of the emperors of Russia, 24 km south of St Petersburg; also the adjacent town. It consists of several imperial and private palaces set in parks: the Bol’shoy (‘great’; or Yekaterininsky, after Catherine I) Palace, surrounded by the Stary (‘old’; or Regulyarny, ‘regular’) Gardens and the Novy (‘new’; or Zhivopisny, ‘picturesque’) Gardens; the Aleksandrovsky Palace; and, near by, the Boblovsky Palace (destr. World War II), the Paley Palace, the Fyodorovsky Gorod (a barracks) and other buildings. A village was built close by in the mid-18th century, becoming a town in 1780. In Soviet times the town was renamed Pushkin, in honour of the poet.

Emperor Peter I presented the estate to his wife Catherine after his victories against Sweden: the first building, a stone villa, was commissioned in 1718 to be built by the German architect J. Braunstein in a northern Baroque style. J. Roosen laid out a Dutch garden at the same period. In ...


Ian Dunlop and Bet McLeod

French town on the River Seine, 11.5 km west of Paris. It was the site of a French royal château, built in the 17th century on the site of an existing house and destroyed (with the exception of a few outbuildings and its majestic garden) in 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War. The town was also an important centre of ceramics production during the 17th century and the early 18th.

See also Orléans, House of family, §1.

Ian Dunlop

A house in the ‘Italian style’ was first built at Saint-Cloud in 1572, for the Gondi family. It was embellished in 1625 by Jean-François de Gondi, Archbishop of Paris, after whose death it was acquired in 1655 by the financier Bartélemy d’Hervard. In 1658 the house was acquired by Philippe, Duc d’Orléans, brother of Louis XIV, known as Monsieur. From c. 1660 to 1668 Philippe had a new house built on the site of the Maison Gondi, to the designs of his architect ...


Robin B. Williams

Town plan for the second largest city in Georgia. The Savannah plan is celebrated today as one of the finest urban layouts in the world, yet it had limited influence outside Georgia. Conceived in the context of Enlightenment idealism, it is rivaled in its sophistication in America only by the plan of Washington, DC. In 1733, General James Edward Oglethorpe founded the Georgia colony and laid out Savannah as its capital. Its network of numerous squares and broad streets dedicated a greater percentage of land to the public realm than any other city plan in history and created a model of humanly scaled urbanism.

Oglethorpe devised a plan linking the region to the city in which each freeholder received a roughly 45-acre farm lot, a 5-acre garden lot and a 60×90 ft (c. 18×27 m) town lot. The town plan reflected the utopian ideals of the colony with an egalitarian network of wards, each originally 675×675 ft (205×205 m) in size and centered on a public square. Yet, within each ward, blocks and streets establish subtle hierarchies. Pairs of “trust lots” reserved for public buildings flank each square to the east and west, while to the north and south lay four residential “tything” blocks, each comprising ten residential town lots set in two rows of five divided by a lane. The plan also employed two classes of streets: civic streets include principal streets 75 ft (23 m) wide on axis with each square and those running east–west between the wards, and, half their width, secondary streets 37.5 ft (11.5 m) wide skirting the squares; utilitarian streets include principal streets 45 ft (13.7 m) wide running north–south between wards and lanes 22.5 ft (7 m) wide subdividing the tything blocks. Despite dramatic social and technological changes since ...


Andreas Falz

German town in the province of Baden-Württemberg, c. 10 km west of Heidelberg. During the 17th and 18th centuries Schloss Schwetzingen was the summer residence of the electors of the Palatinate. The 72-ha castle gardens were created between 1753 and 1777 in the reign of the Elector Charles Theodore, and they remain among the finest in Europe. The juxtaposition of the strictly geometrical Baroque-style French garden and the surrounding English landscape garden gives the castle grounds their special charm. The French garden, which was re-created from 1978 on the basis of the original 18th-century plans, was laid out by the court gardener Johan Ludwig Petri and the architect Nicolas de Pigage, while the landscape gardens were designed by Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell. Pigage erected a series of splendid buildings in the park, among them a bath pavilion (1773), a mosque (1778), a monopteral Temple of Apollo (...



V. D. Goryacheva

[Uzgand; Uzgen]

Town in Kyrgyzstan. Located between the Kara and Yassa (Dzhaza) rivers in the eastern part of the Ferghana Valley, Uzgend is set on three hills and comprises three freestanding towns and citadels surrounded by suburban estates and gardens. The town developed in the 8th and 9th centuries along the Silk Route as a border post on the frontier between the lands of Islam and the Turks. In the 10th and 11th centuries it became the major trading and administrative center in the region and the fourth largest town in Ferghana, covering 12–15 sq. km. From the second half of the 11th century to the beginning of the 13th it was the capital of the Ferghana region of the Qarakhanid khanate, and the major architectural ensemble of the town, comprising three dynastic mausolea, the Friday mosque and minaret, and the remains of a madrasa, dates from this period. Square chambers with ...


Reinhard Zimmermann

Village in Bavaria, 7 km north-east of Würzburg, Germany. The garden at Veitshöchheim is the best-preserved Rococo garden in Germany. It was created in several stages between 1702 and 1776 as the pleasure-ground of the Prince–Bishops of Würzburg, who had had a summer residence with a pheasantry at Veitshöchheim since 1680. In the first phase after 1702, under Prince–Bishop Johann Philipp von Greiffenklau, the basic layout was established; the final, luxurious elaboration, with ornaments, sculptures and waterworks, was executed in 1763–8 under Adam Friedrich von Seinsheim; it was planned by Johann Philipp Geigel (1757–1800), with sculptures by Ferdinand Tietz, Johann Wolfgang von der Auwera and Johann Peter Wagner. The garden (270×475 m) consists of two parts of different sizes, each with its own axis of symmetry. The smaller part is related symmetrically to the castle (designed by Heinrich Zimmer, 1680–82; extended by Balthasar Neumann, 1749–53), the far larger part lying to one side of it to the south; its east–west main axis is parallel to that of the palace garden. The large, transverse, rectangular garden, laid out with trees and hedges, is divided in the longitudinal (north–south) direction into three zones of unequal widths, each representing iconographically distinct spheres. The narrow wooded strip to the east with animal figures points to the realm of nature; the somewhat broader strip next to it with deciduous trees, hedges and stone figures of cavaliers, court ladies and playing children addresses the sphere of courtly culture; while the broad strip to the west embellished with two lakes represents the world of gods and the arts. Mount Parnassus with a grotto base (...


Simone Hoog

Town and château in France, 20 km south-west of Paris. A hunting-lodge built for King Louis XIII in 1623 was rebuilt with extensive gardens from 1631 (see fig.). Under King Louis XIV it became the main royal residence and the seat of the French government from 1682. The château was enlarged in two main phases, first by Louis Le Vau from 1668, then, from 1678, by Jules Hardouin Mansart. The interior decorations were carried out under the supervision of the Premier Peintre du Roi, Charles Le Brun.

The gardens at Versailles, laid out by André Le Nôtre, with a programme of sculptures directed by Le Brun, were designed to complement the château: their solar imagery (see §2 below) was directly related to the image of Louis XIV as the Roi Soleil (Sun King). Further altered by Louis XV, Versailles was one of the most resplendent European palaces of the 18th century, a symbol of French royal power and an exemplar for contemporary monarchs....


Mairead Dunlevy

Irish city and centre of glass production. The earliest Waterford glass factory was established in Gurteens, near Waterford, during the 1720s, and production included lead-glass drinking vessels with pedestal stems, garden glasses, vials, bottles and other green glassware. The factory was closed about 1739.

In 1783 the Waterford Glass House was established by the merchants George Penrose and William Penrose, who employed John Hill and other glassmakers from Stourbridge, England. In 1799 the factory was taken over by three partners, James Ramsey (d c. 1810), Jonathan Gatchell (1752–1823) and Ambrose Barcroft, who in 1802 extended the works and installed new machinery. In 1823 George Gatchell became manager, and the works remained in the family until it closed. The factory produced cut, engraved and moulded glass of excellent quality, and c. 1832 steam power was installed in the factory, which allowed an increase in production.

The outstanding qualities of Waterford glass are its clarity and the precise cutting. The typical early Waterford decanter is barrel-shaped, has three or four neck rings and a wide, flat, pouring lip. Stoppers of Waterford production are almost invariably mushroom-shaped with a rounded knop below the stopper neck. From the cut patterns on marked Waterford decanters it would seem that popular designs included the pillar and arch embellished with fine diamonds. The numerous drawings of Waterford designs (Dublin, N. Mus.) made between ...


Reinhard Alex

Town in Saxony-Anhalt, eastern Germany, 16 km east of Dessau in the Elbe valley, and the site of Schloss Wörlitz and its extensive park, Germany’s first garden of major importance in the English landscape style. This large park (112.5 ha) was created between 1764 and c. 1805 as part of the summer residence of Prince Francis Anhalt-Dessau , and it was open to the public from the very beginning. Its numerous early Neo-classical and neo-Gothic buildings, monuments and bridges in various styles are a programmatic reflection of the ideas of the Enlightenment. Thus the poplars of Ermenonville were faithfully reproduced, as was Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s tomb (1782), while Gotthold Ephraim Lessing’s advocacy of religious tolerance was reflected in a temple (1789–90) that was equipped as a synagogue (fittings stripped by the Nazis). The garden was largely conceived by Prince Francis himself and the architect Friedrich Wilhelm Erdmannsdorff , who were both profoundly influenced by travels in England and Italy; evidence of a lasting enthusiasm for Italy is seen in the Insel Stein (...