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Article

Luciana Arbace

Italian centre of ceramic production. The town, situated near Savona in Liguria, was a flourishing centre of maiolica production during the Renaissance. It was, however, only during the 17th and 18th centuries that a distinctive style developed. Important families in the pottery business included the Grosso, Chiodo, Corrado, Salomone, Pescio, Seitone, Seirullo, Levantino and Siccardi, all of whom produced large quantities of polychrome plates (e.g. by the Corrado, mid-17th century; Nino Ferrari priv. col., see Morazzoni, pl. 43), albarelli and vases, which were sometimes inspired by silverware and contemporary delftware. In some cases, yellow and an olive green were used on a turquoise ground. Wares were decorated in a calligraphic style with an emphasis on naturalistic motifs including such animals as leverets; this style later evolved into Baroque forms painted with soft, loose brushstrokes.

In the 1920s the Futurist potter Tullio Mazzotti (1899–1971), who took the name Tullio d’Albisola, revived Albisola’s reputation as a pottery centre. The town continued to produce pottery throughout the 20th century, especially the blue-and-white pottery known as Antico Savona. The Museo della Ceramica Manlio Trucco houses a collection of Albisola pottery from every period....

Article

Amol  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Ansbach  

Walter Spiegl

German town in Bavaria, c. 40 km south-east of Nuremberg. Ansbach is known particularly as a centre of ceramics production. A faience factory was established by Matthias Baur and Johann Caspar Ripp in Ansbach c. 1708–10. Wares included jugs and tankards at first decorated in blue and later in the famille verte (green, yellow, iron-red, blue and purple) palette. In 1757 a porcelain factory was established beside the faience factory at the behest of Margrave Karl Alexander (d 1806), who in 1763 transferred it to Schloss Bruckberg. The secret formula for porcelain was brought to Ansbach by Johann Friedrich Kändler (1734–91), a nephew of the Meissen Modellmeister Johann Joachim Kändler, who had worked at the factory of Wilhelm Caspar Wegely (1714–64) in Berlin, as had the superb miniaturist and colour specialist Johann Carl Gerlach (1723–86) and the modeller Carl Gottlob Laut (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French centre of ceramics production. A pottery was founded in the village of Bellvue (near Toul, in Meurthe-et-Moselle) in 1758. In 1771 it passed into the hands of Charles Bayard (former director of the Lunéville pottery) and François Boyer, who in 1773 were given the right to style the pottery ‘Manufacture Royale de Bellevue’. Bayard left in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(UK)

English centre of ceramics production. A pottery was founded in the town of Hull (near what is now the Albert Dock) in 1802; the proprietors included Job Ridgway family. It soon closed, but in 1826 it was bought by William Bell, who called it Bellevue; it closed in 1841. The factory produced large quantities of earthenware, much of which was exported to Germany through the Company’s depot in Hamburg. Very few examples of its wares survive; some are marked Belle Vue....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Australian pottery founded in 1858 by a Scot, George Guthrie (1808–1909), in the town of Bendigo, Victoria. The factory made household wares, including acid bottles, bricks, clay pipes, roof tiles and tableware. During World War I it also made portrait jugs of military commanders, and in the 1930s it made agate-ware vases that were marketed as Waverly ware. The pottery is still active, but since ...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Gordon Campbell

English centre of ceramics production. Town in Derbyshire where a group of manufacturers of household wares in brown stoneware were active from the 18th century to the early 20th. The most prominent factories were Oldfield & Co. and S. & H. Briddon. The Brampton potter Thomas Davenport (1815–88) emigrated to Utah, where he and his descendants worked as potters....

Article

Bernadette Nelson

Portuguese centre of ceramic production. Documents record kilns operating in the town in 1488, and the first potters were Álvaro Annes, Vicente Annes and Francisco Lopes. However, the modern ceramics tradition with which the town is associated dates to the time of a certain D. Maria ‘dos Cacos’, who is recorded as having attempted to sell his wares in fairs all over Portugal between 1820 and 1853. Pieces attributed to him are rare. He was succeeded by Manuel Cipriano Gomes (fl 1853–7) from Mafra. In addition to producing faience that resembled wares made in the Oporto factories (see Oporto §2), Gomes also produced a body of wares that were strongly influenced by the work of Palissy, Bernard.

In 1884 the Fábrica de Faianças das Caldas da Rainha was established in Lisbon, under the artistic direction of the painter Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro (see Bordalo Pinheiro family §(1)...

Article

Patrick Bowe, Bet McLeod, and Patricia Wardle

French town in the Oise region, c. 40 km north of Paris, and the site of a famous château. It is also known as a centre of production of porcelain and lace.

Chantilly, set on a rock in the otherwise flat, marshy valley of the Nonette River, was first fortified in Roman times and was in continuous occupation throughout the Middle Ages. In 1386 it was bought by Pierre d’Orgemont, Chancelier de France, who built a new castle (completed 1394) on the site. In 1484 Chantilly passed to the Montmorency family. In 1524 remodelling of d’Orgemont’s castle in a French Renaissance style was begun by Anne, Duc de Montmorency and Constable of France under Francis I (reg 1515–47), Henry II (reg 1549–59) and Charles IX (reg 1560–74). Work was interrupted by the capture (1525) of the Constable at the Battle of Pavia but was resumed after his release. Between ...

Article

Crich  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Deruta  

Wendy M. Watson

Italian centre of maiolica production. It was the main centre of pottery production in Umbria during the Renaissance. A document of 1358 records the sale of ceramic wares to the convent of S Francesco in nearby Assisi, although potteries probably existed in Deruta even earlier. Between c. 1490 and 1550 production increased in quantity and quality, and plain and decorated wares were supplied to a wide market (see fig.; see also Italy, fig.). By the early 16th century 30 to 40 kilns were in operation, of which only three or four used the metallic gold and red lustres for which Deruta and Gubbio are renowned. As in Gubbio, lustres were applied to local wares and to those brought from such other centres of production as Urbino for this specialized finish. In addition to lustred ceramics, quantities of polychrome maiolica were produced, the predominant colours of which are yellow, orange and blue. In the 17th and 18th centuries the quality of ceramic production declined and was characterized by the manufacture of votive plaques that were placed in churches and homes....

Article

Echizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan, based on some 20 kiln sites 7 km north-west of the city of Takefu (Fukui Prefect.). Echizen is known as one of Japan’s ‘Six Old Kilns’. It is one of three centres that arose in the area (the others being Kaga and Suzu) in the 12th century in response to increased agricultural production. Ceramics appeared in Fukui Prefecture in the 6th century ad with the manufacture of Sue stoneware, fired in tunnel kilns (anagama; see Japan §IX 2., (ii), (a)). In the 12th century, however, increased agricultural production, coupled with the introduction of new technology, encouraged the development of a higher-fired brown stoneware. The use of a tunnel kiln with a dividing pillar, the manufacture of jars with everted rims and incised horizontal bands and the use of the coil-and-paddle technique in the early Echizen wares point to origins in kilns such as ...

Article

Faenza  

Carmen Ravanelli Guidotti

Italian centre of maiolica production. It is one of the most famous centres of Italian maiolica production and from the 17th century lent its name to this particular category of ceramics made throughout Europe (‘faience’). Ceramic production in Faenza is referred to in records and documents dating from as early as the 14th century. Early products are solid and heavy in shape and decorated with rather frugal, severe ornamentation, mostly in brown and green. For this reason they are generally considered ‘archaic’ medieval products.

Only during the 15th century did the production of ceramics in Faenza begin to develop a specifically individual style. Faenza maiolica was technically more refined than that produced in other centres and incorporated a rich, varied palette. In particular the decoration was enriched with fashionable subjects, including Gothic–Moorish motifs, coats of arms, heraldic devices, and portraits of belle donne painted on coppe amatorie (love dishes). These features remained during the 16th century when the ...

Article

Gmunden  

Gabriele Ramsauer

Austrian centre of ceramic production. The existence of a pottery tradition in Gmunden was discovered during excavations in 1955 when a settlement with pottery dating from the Roman period was found at nearby Engelhof. At the end of the 16th century seven potters were resident in Gmunden, but by 1747 there were only three. Local clays from Baumgarten and Vichtau were used, and the earliest pottery consisted of rather plain dishes for everyday use, which were based on Italian models.

During the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries the Gmunden potteries produced mainly marbled wares using a combination of green, blue, grey, brown and white glazes. In addition to tankards and jugs, the most popular form was the so-called ‘Pfeifenschüssel’, an oval plate with an undulating edge, which was mainly used as a wall decoration. Green and brown mottled ware was developed from c. 1600 as attempts were made to achieve a marbled effect on a white glaze by using dots and flecks of colour. Originally, in addition to light green and cobalt blue, rich green and brown were also used; from the second half of the 18th century the markings were mainly in green and the pottery was known commercially as ‘Grüngeflammte’ ware and became popular as typical Gmunden pottery. At the same time an ‘Alt-Gmundner-Fayence’ was being developed on which pictorial decoration of the human figure and views of Gmunden were used rather than ornament. For centuries Gmunden pottery presented a stylistically unified picture in the forms and patterns used by its few workshops....

Article

Hull  

Ivan Hall

[Kingston-upon-Hull]

English port and university city in Humberside, at the confluence of the rivers Hull and Humber. Founded in medieval times, it was an important centre for the production of ceramics in the 19th century.

The city was founded because Edward I recognized the strategic importance of the port and of the town of Wyke then on the site. The regular grid pattern of the street layout was started before 1293, although work did not begin on the ring of defensive walls until 1321. Bricks were made in Hull from the early 14th century, and brick buildings are characteristic of the city, for example Holy Trinity (begun c. 1300). The market-place was narrow, and the High Street originally had buildings only to the west, although subsequent building on the riverbank created a new development of private merchants’ houses with gardens or courts, warehouses and quays. The enclosed area was not fully built over until the mid-18th century. The island block owned by the Carmelites until the Reformation remained intact; it was progressively redeveloped in a handsome manner during the 18th century and the early 19th. In the late 14th century many of the gabled timber-framed houses were either encased by new work (often brick) or were vertically extended and refronted, thus transforming the appearance if not the underlying substance of the town. ...

Article

Iga  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan. It flourished from the late 16th century in the vicinity of Ueno City (now Mie Prefect.;see Japan, §IX, 3, (ii)). Although Iga is most famous for its aggressively distorted, natural ash-glazed wares for the tea ceremony (see Japan, §XV), kilns in the surrounding hills also produced utilitarian wares from at least the second half of the 17th century. It remains unclear if there is any local predecessor to the Iga teawares that emerged in the late 16th century. Sue wares (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)) were fired in the region from the 6th century ad, and unglazed stonewares were manufactured in nearby Shigaraki from the 13th century, but since the entire region drew from the same clay source, it is impossible clearly to isolate a proto-Iga ware from the vast amounts of wares made at Shigaraki.

The beginning of Iga teawares is traced through tea ceremony records. The ware is mentioned first in ...

Article

Thurstan Shaw

Town in Nigeria (pop. c. 15,000 in the 1990s), situated 40 km south-east of Onitsha, which is on the River Niger. The name means ‘Great Igbo’ in the Igbo language. It is also the name given to the ancient culture that produced the elaborate metalwork and ceramics, dated to the 10th century ad, that were found at three sites on the outskirts of the town.

The first site came to light some time before the outbreak of World War II in 1939 while a man, Isaiah Anozie, was digging a cistern. Not far below ground-level he unearthed a highly decorated bronze bowl, and further digging led to the discovery of other bronzes, some of which were given to his neighbours who thought they would make good ‘medicine’. The remaining objects were bought by John Field, the area’s Assistant District Officer, who published an account of the discovery and presented the collection to the Nigerian Federal Department of Antiquities. At the invitation of the Department, the archaeologist ...

Article

Imola  

Gordon Campbell

Italian centre of maiolica production. Maiolica has been made at Imola (Emilia-Romagna) since the 16th century; its early products resemble those of Faenza. A collection of some 457 maiolica apothecary’s jars made in the 18th century is displayed in the Farmacia dell’Ospedale (which is still a working pharmacy). In the 19th century Angelo Minghetti (...

Article

Regina Krahl

[Ching-te-chen]

Town and county seat in north-east Jiangxi Province, China, and the country’s main centre of porcelain production. For most of its existence the town was part of Fouliang, in Raozhou Prefecture, and in historical records its ceramics are generally referred to as Raozhou ware. With a continuous history of manufacturing porcelain from the Tang period (ad 618–907), it is the source of most Chinese porcelain.

The imperial kilns were located at Zhushan in the centre of modern Jingdezhen city; many lesser kilns were situated in Hutian, 4 km to the south-east. The area is supplied with fine-quality porcelain stone, the basic raw material for Chinese porcelain; it is surrounded by forests that provided fuel for the kilns; and it is conveniently connected to the major ports of southern China by rivers. Recent excavations have brought to light several different kiln types, including egg-shaped zhenyao kilns, bread-roll-shaped mantou kilns and dragon kilns (...