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Article

Agano  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese region in Buzen Province (now part of Fukuoka Prefect.), northern Kyushu, where stonewares were manufactured at various sites from c. 1600 (see also Japan, §IX, 3, (i), (d)).

The first potter to make Agano ware was the Korean master Chon’gye (Jap. Sonkai; 1576–1654). Deported to Kyushu during one of the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597, he entered the service of Hosokawa Tadaoki (1563–1645), the newly appointed governor of Buzen. On the completion of Tadaoki’s fortress at Kokura (now Kitakyushu), Chon’gye built the Saienba kiln, probably within the castle precincts. A site thought to be Saienba was found beneath Myōkōji, the temple that replaced the castle in 1679, and excavations took place between 1979 and 1983. Sherds of both tea ceremony and everyday wares have been found there; they have transparent glazes made with a wood-ash flux, opaque glazes made with a straw-ash flux or brown-black glazes pigmented with iron oxide. Inscriptions on surviving pieces and entries in contemporary diaries indicate that these early products were also called Buzen or Kokura ware. After a few years the Saienba kiln closed, and ...

Article

Japanese, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1861, in Tokyo; died 1912.

Painter. Portraits.

Nakataro Ando was a pupil of Takahashi Yuichi. He was a director of the Tenkai Gakusha school and had many disciples. Later he founded the Hakuba-kai (Institute of Western Painting) with Kuroda Seiki and others. He painted mainly portraits. In ...

Article

Margo Machida

(b New York, Aug 16, 1949).

American printmaker and installation artist. Born and raised in New York City, Arai, a third-generation Japanese American printmaker, mixed-media artist, public artist and cultural activist, studied art at the Philadelphia College of Art and The Printmaking Workshop in New York. Since the 1970s, her diverse projects have ranged from individual works to large-scale public commissions (see Public art in the 21st century). She has designed permanent public works, including an interior mural commemorating the African burial ground in lower Manhattan and an outdoor mural for Philadelphia’s Chinatown. Other works include Wall of Respect for Women (1974), a mural on New York’s Lower East Side, which was a collaboration between Arai and women from the local community. Her art has been exhibited in such venues as the Bronx Museum of the Arts, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of Modern Art, International Center for Photography, P.S.1 Museum, the Brooklyn Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art, all New York and the Library of Congress, Washington, DC. She is the recipient of awards and fellowships from National Endowment for the Arts, New York Foundation for the Arts, and Joan Mitchell Foundation....

Article

Japanese, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Tokyo.

Born 1872; died 1944.

Painter.

Juppo Araki received an honourable mention at the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle .

Article

Japanese, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1831; died 1915.

Painter. Animals, flowers.

Araki Kampo was a painter in the Western style who specialised in flowers and birds. He was active in Tokyo, where he taught at the Imperial School of Arts in Tokyo and was a member of the Art Committee of the Imperial Household. He won a silver medal at the ...

Article

Born 1857; died 1931

Japanese, 19th–20th century, male.

Active in Tokyo.

Painter. Landscapes.

Tanrei Araki exhibited his work at the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle.

2009, Faszination des Fremden: China, Japan, Europa, Hetjens, Museum, Deutsches Kera­mikmuseum, Düsseldorf

Reading, PA (Reading Public Museum)

Article

Robert Buerglener

[motor car]

Architecture and the automobile have been intimately connected since the late 19th century. The attributes of cars required specific architectural solutions for manufacture, sales, and service. On a broader level, the overall built environment was forever changed by roadside structures designed to meet the needs of drivers.

Automobile factories evolved in tandem with mass production; modular form and open floor spaces provided flexibility in machine placement and possibilities for expansion as production needs changed. Detroit-based architect Albert Kahn, with his associate Ernest Wilby (1868–1957), set a new standard for 20th-century industrial buildings through innovative use of space and materials. For the Packard Company’s Building Number Ten (Detroit, 1905; enlarged 1909), Kahn used reinforced concrete to create modular bays, repeatable horizontally and vertically, with wide interior spans and large window surfaces. For Ford’s Highland Park factory (begun 1909; see fig.), Kahn designed a multi-building complex of reinforced concrete and steel-framed buildings that housed machinery strategically in the sequence of production. In Ford’s River Rouge manufacturing complex in Dearborn, MI (...

Article

Japanese, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1856, in Chiba Prefecture; died 1907.

Painter. Landscapes.

Chu Asai was a pupil of Kunisawa Shinkuro and studied with Antonio Fontanesi at the Tokyo School of Fine Art, where he later became a teacher. He also taught at the Kyoto Higher School of Design....

Article

Aya Louisa McDonald

[Mokugo; Mokugyo]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], June 21, 1856; d Kyoto, Dec 16, 1907).

Japanese painter . He was the leading Western-style (Yōga; see Japan, §VI, 5, (iv)) landscape painter of the Meiji period (1868–1912) and one of the founder-members of the Meiji Bijutsukai (Meiji Fine Arts Society, established 1889; later absorbed into the Taiheiyō Gakai [Pacific Painting Society]), the first association of Western-style painters in Japan. Asai was born into a samurai family retained by the Sakura clan. He was originally trained in Japanese bird-and-flower painting (kachōga) in the literati (Nanga or Bunjinga) style, but turned later to oil painting and at the age of 19 entered the Shōgidō, a private school of Western-style painting. The school had been opened in Tokyo the previous year by the artist Shinkurō Kunisawa (1847–77), who had studied painting under John Wilcolm in London.

When the government-sponsored Kōbu Bijutsu Gakkō (Technical Art School) was opened in Tokyo in ...

Article

Matico Josephson

American multi-ethnic arts organization based in New York’s Chinatown. The Asian American Arts Centre (AAAC) and its predecessors, the Asian American Dance Theatre (1974–93) and the Asian Arts Institute (1981–8), emerged from the milieu of the Basement Workshop, the first working group of the Asian American Movement on the East Coast, whose mouthpiece was the journal Bridge (1970–81). After the closing of the Basement Workshop in 1987, the Dance Theatre and the Asian Arts Institute were consolidated as the AAAC.

Directed by Eleanor S. Yung, the Dance Theatre was at the core of the organization’s activities from the 1970s through the early 1990s, performing traditional dances from several Asian cultures alongside modern and postmodern forms. In the early 1980s, the Asian Arts Institute began to hold exhibitions and collect slides of artists’ work and documentation of their activities, working primarily with artists involved in the downtown art scene. Early programs included open studio events for artists working in Chinatown and exhibitions of the work of Arlan Huang (...

Article

Ralph Croizier

revised by Michaela Pejcochova

[Ch’i Pai-shihzi Huanghao Baishi LaorenBaishi Shanweng]

(b Xiangtan, Hunan Province, 1864; d Beijing, 1957).

Chinese painter. He was probably the most popular painter in 20th-century China, esteemed alike by the conservative scholarly elite, the common citizens of China’s urban centers, foreign collectors, and revolutionaries both artistic and political for his ink paintings of birds, flowers, small animals, and insects. His original landscapes as well as calligraphic inscriptions, witty poetic lines, and seals carved with unfailing vigor and precision were also highly appreciated. The range of his appeal from the 1920s onward derived from his character, his lifestyle, and his image as a traditional, high-minded artist who remained aloof from corrupt politics and concentrated purely on art and simple domestic life during the politically and socially unsettled period after the fall of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911). Lowly beginnings and self-improvement through culture and learning were admirable according to Confucian standards, and by the end of Qi’s life the new Communist government had hailed him as an authentic “People’s Artist.”...

Article

Angelika Steinmetz and Gordon Campbell

(b 1896; d 1965).

German potter who after an early career as a sculptor established a pottery workshop in Kandern. Initially he made pottery statuettes, and then cubist vases. In the 1940s he became interested in East Asian (especially Japanese) glazes, and c. 1950 became the first German potter to produce asymmetrical work with experimental viscous glazes and broken, irregular surface textures....

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Stephen Hill

(Margaret Lowthian)

(b Washington, Co. Durham, July 14, 1868; d Baghdad, 11/July 12, 1926).

English archaeologist and architectural historian. The first woman to achieve a first-class honours in modern history at Oxford University, she travelled widely in Europe, Japan and especially the Middle East in the 1890s, achieving fluency in a number of European languages as well as in Persian, Turkish and Arabic. She developed an interest in archaeology and architecture that was reflected in an authoritative set of articles on the Early Byzantine churches of Syria and southern Turkey, based on her travels in 1905. Her first major travel book, The Desert and the Sown, contains a mixture of travellers’ tales and archaeological information, as does her Amurath to Amurath. Between 1905 and 1914 she made archaeological studies of the Early Byzantine and Early Islamic monuments of Turkey, Syria and Mesopotamia (now Iraq). In 1905 and 1907 she surveyed Binbirkilise with Sir William Ramsay; their book, The Thousand and One Churches, remains the authoritative account of this important site. The architectural recording by survey and photography at Binbirkilise was carried out by Bell and is a lasting monument in its own right. Bell’s interest in Anatolia was inspired by Josef Strzygowski and his book ...

Article

(b New Orleans, LA, March 15, 1873; d New Orleans, 1949).

American photographer. Bellocq is known to have worked as a commercial photographer in New Orleans from 1895 to 1940 and to have photographed for local shipbuilders and in the Chinese sector of New Orleans, although none of this work apparently survives. His photography is known only through prints made by Lee Friedlander from the 89 gelatin dry plate negatives found after Bellocq’s death. These negatives date from c. 1912 and are sympathetic portraits of prostitutes of New Orleans and interior views of their workplaces. Known as the Storyville Portraits, 34 were shown by MOMA, New York, in a travelling exhibition in 1970–71. Bellocq’s life was the subject of Pretty Baby (1978), a film by Louis Malle.

E. J. Bellocq: Storyville Portraits: Photographs from the New Orleans Red-light District, circa 1912 (exh. cat. by J. Szarkowski and L. Friedlander, New York, MOMA, 1970)G. Badger: ‘Viewed’, British Journal of Photography...

Article

Catherine Cooke

(Yevgen’yevich)

(b Zhitomir, 1875; d Gatchina, July 19, 1933).

Russian architect and teacher. After early training in Pskov, he studied (1901–10) at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, latterly in the studio of Leonty Benois. After a year in Odessa he was commissioned in 1911 by the developer Konstantin Rozenshtein to execute façades for residential buildings on the fashionable Bol’shoy Prospect (Petrograd Side), St Petersburg. His treatments at nos 77 (1912–13) and 75 (1913–15) are respectively Gothic and Renaissance classical in their detailing. These, and his elevations in freer classical mode for Gontskevich’s building (1912–15) at no. 102 of the same street, derive their strong identity from the grotesque treatment of stylistic detail that characterizes all Belogrud’s work. Other built works of this period included the Skating Rink complex (1912) in St Petersburg and the Municipal Theatre (1913), Saratov. During these years he was also a lively contributor to stylistic and professional debates in Russian architecture. In ...

Article

Hélène Guéné-Loyer

(b Mer, nr Blois, Nov 5, 1862; d Paris, 1927).

French ceramics manufacturer. He was initially a physics and chemistry teacher and in 1889 visited the Exposition Universelle in Paris, where he saw Chinese porcelain with opaque glazes that enhanced the ground colours and emphasized the forms of the body. He transferred this technique to stoneware, a less expensive material that has the advantage of being able to withstand great variations of temperature when fired. In this way, with one type of ceramic body, it is possible to vary the degree to which enamels are fused in order to obtain dull, oily or crystalline finishes in the greatest possible variation of colours.

Bigot exhibited his work in the Salons from 1894 and through Siegfried Bing in 1897. In 1900 he won a major prize at the Exposition Universelle, for which he made a frieze of animals in low relief, after the design by the sculptor Paul Jouve (b 1880...

Article

Jason C. Kuo

revised by Zaixin Hong

[Huang Pin-hung, ming Zhi, zi Pucun /Po-chun]

(b Jinhua, Zhejiang Province, Jan 27, 1865; d Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, Mar 25, 1955).

Chinese scholar, epigraphist, and painter. Huang Binhong was a visionary known for his world view on Chinese art, original art writings, and modern expressionist style. Drawing on a lifelong study of old masters (lingu) and close observation of nature (xiesheng) through extensive travels around the country, he transformed traditional Chinese landscape painting in the 20th century. In 1953, both he and Qi Baishi were honored by the Communist government as the “Excellent Painter of the Chinese People” and the “Artist of the Chinese People” respectively, and from then on referred to as Huang of the South and Qi of the North.

Born into a merchant family from Shexian, Anhui Province, Huang passed the entry level of the civil service examination but ended that career path at the age of 29. While running the family enterprise, he cultivated his passion for landscape painting and ancient seals. By the time he left Shexian for Shanghai in ...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Margaret Medley

(b Ash, Kent, July 28, 1844; d London, Dec 18, 1908).

English art historian. Trained in medicine, he became interested in the history of Chinese ceramics during his years as physician to the British embassy in Beijing (1868–1900). In 1891 he drafted a translation (pubd 1910) of Zhu Yan’s Tao shuo (‘Description of Chinese pottery and porcelain’, 1774), the first comprehensive account of Chinese ceramics written for connoisseurs by a Chinese critic. Bushell’s greatest achievement was his catalogue of the William T. Walters Collection in Baltimore, sumptuously published in ten folio volumes in 1896; its text, published as a single volume in 1899, is the earliest systematic study in English of Chinese ceramics in which the subject is treated chronologically and in which particular aspects such as reign marks, forms, technical matters and decorative motifs are considered separately. Bushell also translated a handwritten copy of Xiang Yuanbian’s Lidai mingci tupu (‘Illustrated description of the celebrated porcelain of different dynasties’, ...