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Article

Ai Xuan  

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born in Nanjing.

Painter. Flowers, animals.

Ai Xuan specialised in flowers and birds and was a member of the academy of painting during the reign of Emperor Shenzong (1068-1085).

Beijing (NM): Aubergines and Cabbages (signed work)

Article

Alimpy  

G. I. Vzdornov

(fl second half of 11th century; d Kiev).

Russian painter and monk. He learnt the art of painting in the Pecherskaya Lavra (cave monastery) in Kiev, working alongside Greek artists who were decorating the cathedral of the Dormition (1073–89; destr. 1941) with mosaics and wall paintings: ‘Alimpy himself helped them and studied under them’ (Kievo-Pechersky Paterikon). The Paterikon, the source of all information about Alimpy, relates that the monk produced icons for the monastery itself and on commission, and the numerous references to the use of silver and gold suggest that he also practised as a jeweller. A wealthy citizen of Kiev ordered seven icons from Alimpy to form a Deësis made up of images of Christ, the Virgin, John the Baptist, Archangels Michael and Gabriel and two Apostles. The Paterikon also states that Alimpy’s icon of the Virgin was sent by Vladimir Monomakh (reg 1076–8; 1094–1125) to Rostov, where it is mentioned in early 13th-century sources. No surviving Old Russian icon, however, can be definitively attributed to Alimpy. He is buried in the caves of the Pecherskaya Lavra, alongside other ‘venerable Fathers’....

Article

Alipi  

Russian, 11th – 12th century, male.

Died 17 August 1114.

Painter.

This artist was a monk who took his name from that of the monastery in the caves of Kiev. He painted images of the oldest saints, having learned his art from the Byzantine painters who decorated the monastery church in ...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Charles Buchanan

Type of large-format Bible, usually found in pandect (single-volume) form, produced in central Italy and Tuscany from around 1060 to the middle of the 12th century. They came out of the efforts of a reformist papacy intent on wresting control over ecclesiastical investiture from the Holy Roman Emperor. The Giant Bibles were produced in reformed canonries and monasteries and then exported to the same, not only in Italy but throughout Europe.

The term ‘Atlantic’ (from the mythological giant Atlas) is derived from their impressive size; dimensions range from 550 to 600 mms by 300 to 400 mms. Their script, derived from Caroline minuscule, is placed in two columns of around fifty-five lines. The texts are decorated with two initial types, which Edward B. Garrison designated as ‘geometrical’ and ‘full shaft’, both of which are derived from Carolingian and Ottonian exemplars, respectively. The iconography consists of full-length prophets, patriarchs, kings and saints as well as narrative scenes. The last are at times found as full-page cyclical illuminations and preface important textual divisions, especially Genesis. The iconography of the Giant Bibles is a specific Roman iconographical recension with its sources based in part on Early Christian pictorial cycles, such as the wall paintings of Old St Peter’s in Rome. These came from an era considered by the reformers to have been uncorrupted by the abuses that afflicted the Church when these Bibles were being made. While the Giant Bibles were promulgated by the Church of Rome as a symbol of its supreme authority, they also allowed the clergy to perform the liturgy, and the Divine Office in particular, properly....

Article

Richard K. Emmerson

Illuminated Ottonian manuscript (205×295 mm; Bamberg, Staatsbibl., MS. Bibl. 140) comprising 106 folios, divided into two halves, the first containing 50 miniatures illustrating the Book of Revelation, the second with 5 full-page miniatures illustrating Gospel readings from the Nativity to Pentecost. Separating the sections are two full-page images each with two registers. On the left St Peter and St Paul crown a young ruler, who is given obeisance by personifications of the four peoples of the empire, depicted below. They recall the personifications bringing gifts to the emperor in the Gospels of Otto III (Munich, Bayer. Staatsbib., Clm. 4453). Facing this imperial scene, on the right, Old Testament figures are paired with four personifications of the victorious virtues they model for the ruler: Abraham/Obedience, Moses/Purity, David/Repentance, and Job/Patience. The Apocalypse miniatures, of varying size and interspersed within the Latin text, are painted on gold grounds. Their iconography, descending from a Roman archetype, is related to the Carolingian Valenciennes Apocalypse (early 9th century; Valenciennes, Bib. Mun., MS. 99) and the contemporary Apocalypse fresco of Novara Baptistery. The vigorous colours and sumptuous execution of the miniatures, including an early detailed ...

Article

Bernard  

French, 11th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects.

A monk, this artist was active in Beaulieu, Limousin. Between 1005 and 1008 he painted in the oratory of the monastery: The Annunciation; The Visitation; The Birth of Jesus; The Presentation in the Temple and The Adoration of the Magi...

Article

Bernard  

Flemish School, 11th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects.

This artist painted pictures for the abbey church of Lobbes.

Article

Cui Bo  

James Robinson

[Ts’ui Pozi Zx]

(b Haoliang, now Fengyang, Anhui Province; fl. mid-11th century).

Chinese painter. After establishing a considerable artistic reputation, Cui was appointed to the post of assistant teacher (yixue) at the court of Emperor Shenzong (reg 1067–1085) at Bianliang (now Kaifeng, Henan Province). Dissatisfied with his post in the imperial Hanlin Painting Academy, Cui was given permission by the Emperor to resign but continued to paint imperial commissions.

Cui established a new standard for painting within the Northern Song (960–1127) Academy. In contrast to the Tang (618–907 ce) style of animal, bird, and plant painting (see China, §V, 3(v)(b)), which stressed central, static compositions and employed strong ink outlines filled with luxuriant color, Cui introduced a new sense of action in his natural scenes, which were painted directly onto silk without underdrawing. In 1061 he produced one of the extant masterpieces of Northern Song painting, Shuangxi tu (“Magpies and hare”; Taipei, N. Pal. Mus.). This painting presents a confrontation between a hare and two magpies on a windy autumn day. The preciseness of a moment in time is emphasized by the backward and upward glance of the hare and the precarious thrusting forward of the bird above it. The effect of transience is heightened by the wind-bent bamboos and grasses, the decaying leaves, and the linear movement of the elements of this seemingly unarranged scene. The dramatic interaction between animals is unprecedented in earlier paintings. The coloring is subdued, and the hare and magpies are textured with hair-thin lines, appearing more lifelike than in any other previous example. Stories record Cui’s broad competence and versatility in subject matter. He painted narrative and religious themes, landscapes and animals, birds and plants, setting new standards of realism for subsequent generations of Chinese painters....

Article

Bonizzo  

Italian, 11th century, male.

Active in Rome at the beginning of the 11th century.

Painter. Religious subjects.

School of Rome.

An inscription indicates that this artist painted the frescoes in the church of S Urbano alla Caffarella, near Rome (1011).

Article

German, 11th – 12th century, male.

Painter.

The Bishop of Halberstadt, this artist had his church rebuilt and was not too proud to contribute to its decoration.

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ad 330 and 1453, studies of Byzantine art often encompassed Post-Byzantine art and that of culturally allied states such as Armenian Cilicia, Macedonia, and portions of Italy. As such fields as Palaiologan family manuscripts and wall paintings, Armenian manuscripts, and Crusader manuscripts and icons emerged, scholars identified new intersections between Western medieval and Byzantine art. Subtle comparisons emerged with the recognition that Byzantine art was not static but changed over time in style and meaning, although most analyses identified Byzantine art as an accessible reservoir of the naturalistic, classicizing styles of antiquity. Scholars considering the 7th-century frescoes at S Maria Antiqua and mosaics at S Maria in Cosmedin, both in Rome, and the 8th-century frescoes at Castelseprio and Carolingian manuscripts such as the Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne (Vienna, Schatzkam. SCHK XIII) used formal comparisons with works such as pre-iconoclastic icons at St Catherine’s Monastery on Sinai, along with the history of Byzantine iconoclasm, to argue for the presence of Greek painters in the West. Similarly, Ottonian and Romanesque painting and luxury arts, such as ivories, provided examples of the appropriation of Byzantine imperial imagery. Yet the study of works such as the great 12th-century ...

Article

Bent L. Pedersen

[Chao Ch’angzi Changzhi]

(b Guanghan, Sichuan Province, c. 960 ce; d after 1016).

Chinese painter. He was a painter of birds, flowers, and insects, following the style of Teng Changyou (fl. 907–920 ce). Although paintings attributed to him are not genuine, they provide an indication of his style. These works can be divided into two groups: one of relatively small paintings of flowers and another of larger pictures, with birds, insects, trees, rocks, and flowers.

Zhao is known to have studied his subjects thoroughly before painting them. The flowers he depicted tended to be the cultivated varieties he saw in the gardens of contemporary Sichuan Province or in the capital, Bianliang (now Kaifeng, in Henan). Although the flowers possess many realistic features, they are sometimes painted in a formal way, producing a decorative effect. Zhao was famous for rendering flowers in such a way that the thickness of the ink and color pigment could be clearly seen. This is evident in the fan painting ...

Article

Chinese, 11th – 12th century, male.

Born 1053, in Juye (Shandong); died 1110.

Painter. Figures, landscapes, animals.

Chao Buzhi was a scholar-official and poet. He also painted figures, animals and trees.

Article

Chinese, 11th – 12th century, male.

Born 1059; died 1129.

Painter.

Chao Shuozhi painted landscapes and wild geese. He was the brother of the painter Chao Buzhi.

Beijing (NM): Gathering of Herons and Geese in a River in Autumn (handscroll, with three inscriptions dated 1132...

Article

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born in Yancheng (Henan).

Painter. Religious subjects, figures, scenes with figures.

Song dynasty.

Chen Yongzhi was a member of the Imperial Painting Academy during the Tiansheng period (1023-1032). A skilful artist, he painted Buddhist and Taoist as well as secular figures and was esteemed for his close attention to detail....

Article

Cui Bai  

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Activec.1050-1080.

Born in Haoliang (Anhui).

Painter. Flowers, animals. Murals.

Song dynasty.

Cui Bai was a member of the Imperial Painting Academy at the beginning of the Xining period (1068-1077) and was particularly favoured by the Song Emperor Shenzong. He painted several wall paintings in the palaces and temples of Kaifeng. He specialised in flowers, birds, and animals in motion....

Article

Cui Que  

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 9th century.

Painter. Flowers, birds.

Cui Que was the brother of Cui Bai.

Article

Joan Stanley-Baker

[Hsü Tao-ning]

(b Chang’an [modern Xi’an], Shaanxi Province, c. 970 ce; d c. 1052).

Chinese painter. Originally a vendor of medicinal herbs, he initially painted landscapes to attract potential customers. After attaining fame, he “frequented the manorial homes of princelings and officials,” for whom he painted murals, hanging scrolls, and handscrolls. He was a familiar guest of the rich and powerful in both Chang’an and the capital, Bianliang (modern Kaifeng), in Henan Province. Famous clients included Huang Tingjian’s father, Huang Shu (1018–1058). Huang Tingjian later eulogized one of Xu’s paintings:

I met Drunken Xu in Chang’an …

Quite tipsy, he would wield a worn brush dripping with ink,

With the force of an avalanche, his hand never stopping.

In a few feet, mountains, and rivers would stretch over ten thousand miles,

And fill the hall with a bleak and chilly air.

A rustic monk returns to his temple, followed by the boy.

A fisherman is hailed by the traveler waiting to ford the stream....

Article

Italian, 10th – 11th century, male.

Active in Rome.

Painter. History painting.

Siret says that Eraclius is the author of a treatise in prose and verse on painting and sculpture entitled De Artibus Romanorum (On the Arts of the Romans).