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Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 16 September 1886, in Strasbourg; died 7 June 1966, in Basel.

Collage artist, engraver, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, poet.

Dadaism.

Der Moderne Bund, Dadaist groups in Zurich and Cologne, Artistes Radicaux, Das Neue Leben, Paris Surrealist Group, Abstraction-Création.

Hans Arp joined the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg in 1902, at the age of 16. In 1903 he began painting and contributed to a local magazine. In 1904 he made his first trip to Paris. From 1905 to 1907 he studied under Ludwig von Hoffmann at the fine arts academy in Weimar, where he attended modern art exhibitions. He returned to Strasbourg, which his family then left for Weggis, on the edge of the Lac des Quatre Cantons in Switzerland. Between 1908 and 1910 he made a second trip to Paris and worked for a time at the Académie Julian. In Weggis he completed his first Abstract compositions and learned the art of modelling. In 1911 he co-founded the group...

Article

Jure Mikuž

(b Gunclje, nr Ljubljana, Sept 6, 1933).

Slovenian painter, printmaker, sculptor, illustrator and poet. He graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts, Ljubljana, in 1955 and later received his MFA in painting and engraving. He continued his studies in 1959 with Johnny Friedlaender in Paris. After 1970 he taught painting at the Ljubljana Academy. He was one of the most outstanding Yugoslav artists after the early 1960s and won several major international awards, including the Grand Prix of the Tokyo, Ljubljana and São Paulo biennales of graphic art.

Bernik’s early works, such as his series of flat picture surfaces, Magmas, Quarries and Burnt Soil, were influenced by Art informel. In the mid-1960s Bernik was an important exponent of the type of European painting based on the use of words. The Great Letter (1964; Ljubljana, Gal. Mod. A.) combines the devices and texture of Art informel with evocations of Byzantine religious texts. At the same time he was also painting pictures with sensually explicit, almost sculpturally or haptically modelled traditional iconographic objects such as the apple, table and cloth, or bread, or pictures in which a written-out word with its meaning was a substitute for a certain object. Here he was responding to European Nouveau Réalisme, Pop art and conceptualism, and the work of Francis Bacon. In the late 1970s Bernik again dispensed with the object in his pictures, producing a series of abstract paintings entitled ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 5 February 1902, in Mestry (Calvados); died 23 April 1982, in Rochefort-en-Yvelines.

Painter (gouache), sculptor, draughtsman, engraver, newspaper cartoonist, humorist artist, poster artist, illustrator, writer. Landscapes with figures, landscapes, village views. Advertising art.

Georges Pierre Beuville studied in Paris at the École des Beaux-Arts and then at the École des Arts Décoratifs....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 9 November 1932, in Chalon-sur-Saône; died 9 August 1992, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator, poet.

Alexandre Bonnier studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Aubusson. He became a teacher and then a director, first of the École des Beaux-Arts in Moulins, and then of the École des Beaux-Arts in Lille. He was a driving force behind the administration of art education in France. In his first period, Alexandre Bonnier used traditional materials in his paintings, in a style somewhere between two apparently opposite poles: surreal eroticism and informal abstraction. Pieyre de Mandiargues, justifiably comparing him with Gustave Moreau and Fautrier, notes that Bonnier 'is driven to seek and to find pictorial equivalents to sensations of sound, taste and touch'. These kinds of nudes, which evoke touch or sound, were the subject of his ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 1 November 1917, in St Rose (Louisiana).

Sculptor (bronze), engraver, painter, illustrator, watercolourist, writer. Figures, portraits, genre scenes.

Margaret T.G. Burroughs studied at the Art Institute of Chicago and Illinois State University. In 1961, Burroughs and her husband founded the Ebony Museum of Negro History and Art at their home in Chicago. The museum remains under Burroughs' directorship, but was later renamed the DuSable Museum of African American History. In ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Active in France.

Born 26 June 1939, in Philadelphia.

Sculptor, painter, print artist, illustrator, writer.

Barbara Chase-Riboud received her BFA from Temple University, Philadelphia, and her MFA from Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. She also studied in Rome. She has lived and worked in Paris since ...

Article

Czech, 20th century, female.

Active from 1946 active in, and from 1957 naturalised in France.

Born 26 December 1908, in Prague.

Painter, engraver, illustrator, sculptor, art critic. Stage sets.

Zdenka Datheil made her debut in Prague, creating about 30 sets for the national theatres of Prague, Brno, Bratislava and Zagreb. She arrived in Paris in ...

Article

Jean E. Feinberg

(b Cincinnati, OH, June 6, 1935).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, illustrator, performance artist, stage designer and poet. He studied art at the Cincinnati Arts Academy (1951–3) and later at the Boston Museum School and Ohio University (1954–7). In 1957 he married Nancy Minto and the following year they moved to New York. Dine’s first involvement with the art world was in his Happenings of 1959–60. These historic theatrical events, for example The Smiling Workman (performed at the Judson Gallery, New York, 1959), took place in chaotic, makeshift environments built by the artist–performer. During the same period he created his first assemblages, which incorporated found materials. Simultaneously he developed the method by which he produced his best known work—paintings, drawings, prints and sculptures that depict and expressively interpret common images and objects.

Clothing and domestic objects featured prominently in Dine’s paintings of the 1960s, with a range of favoured motifs including ties, shoes and bathroom items such as basins, showers and toothbrushes (e.g. ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 2 October 1951, in Hanoi.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor (including bronze), engraver, poet. Artists' books.

Lettrism.

Born in North Vietnam, Albert Dupont came to France at an early age. He began to practise engraving and worked on collector's editions ...

Article

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Active from 1953 also active in France.

Born 21 February 1909, in Lucerne; died 21 March 2015.

Painter, engraver, lithographer, ceramicist, sculptor, illustrator, decorative designer, writer. Murals, designs for mosaics.

Groups: Die Allianz, Abstraction-Creation.

The son of a mechanic, at the outset Hans Erni was a technical draughstman in an architect's studio. He attended the school of arts and crafts in Lucerne between 1927 and 1928, and the Académie Julian in Paris from 1928 to 1929. Between 1929 and 1930 he was at the Vereinigte Staatschule für Freie und Angewandte Kunst (school of applied arts) in Berlin. During his numerous stays in Paris he was in contact with Arp, Piet Mondrian, Constantin Brancusi, Alexander Calder, Wassily Kandinsky and Henry Moore among others. He was also strongly influenced by the work of Picasso and Braque. He joined the group...

Article

S. Kontha

(b Budapest, April 17, 1904; d Budapest, Jan 26, 1986).

Hungarian painter, illustrator, mosaicist, tapestry designer, stage designer, poster designer, printmaker, sculptor, teacher and administrator. From 1922 to 1929 he studied at the Hungarian Academy of Fine Arts (Magyar Kepzőmüvészeti Főiskolá) in Budapest under Gyula Rudnay (1878–1957) and János Vaszary (1867–1939). In the mid-1920s he became acquainted with Béla Uitz’s General Ludd series (1923; Budapest, N.G.) and in Venice he saw the work of such Russian avant-garde artists as Rodchenko and El Lissitzky and such Italian Futurists as Severini. In 1926 in Paris he studied the works of Léger, Braque, Picasso and others in the collection of Léonce Rosenberg. He was also influenced by the art of Brancusi and Joseph Csáky, as well as André Breton’s Manifeste du surréalisme (Paris, 1924). From the outset, Hincz’s work revealed a number of different objectives. Although he experimented with abstraction, the reference to the figure is always present in one form or another. His profound interest in humanity and its social interaction was based on, and motivated by, this interest in the figure. His early paintings are expressionist in mood and are composed of flattened forms in a shallow space in a manner reminiscent of Cubo–Futurist art. Elements of Purism and Surrealism are also present. After World War II he became increasingly preoccupied with realism, political agitprop art and the problems inherent in creating new symbols; a study trip to Korea, China and Vietnam in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 18 May 1940, in Alençon.

Painter, collage artist, lithographer, draughtsman, illustrator, sculptor, writer. Stage sets.

Alain Le Yaouanc spent time in the USA in 1956 where he executed his first paintings. In 1957 he held his first exhibitions in the New Britain Museum, Mattatuck Museum, Waterbury and Connecticut. In ...

Article

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Born 2 February 1923, in Barcelona.

Painter, collage artist, sculptor, engraver, lithographer, illustrator, poet. Stage sets, designs for stained glass.

Albert Ràfols-Casamada learned drawing with his father, the painter Albert Ràfols y Culleres, then from 1942-1945 he studied architecture at the University of Barcelona, at the same time attending the Tarrega art school. He was self-taught as a painter and started to paint in ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

[Warhola, Andrew ]

(b Pittsburgh, PA, Aug 6, 1928; d New York, Feb 22, 1987).

American painter, printmaker, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, film maker, writer, and collector. After studying at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh from 1945 to 1949, he moved to New York and began working as a commercial artist and illustrator for magazines and newspapers. His work of the 1950s, much of it commissioned by fashion houses, was charming and often whimsical in tone, typified by outline drawings using a delicate blotted line that gave even the originals a printed appearance; a campaign of advertisements for the shoe manufacturers I. Miller & Sons in 1955–6 (Kornbluth, pp. 113–21) was particularly admired, helping to earn him major awards from the Art Directors Club.

Warhol continued to support himself through his commercial work until at least 1963, but from 1960 he determined to establish his name as a painter. Motivated by a desire to be taken as seriously as the young artists whose work he had recently come to know and admire, especially Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, he began by painting a series of pictures based on crude advertisements and on images from comic strips. These are among the earliest examples of ...