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Article

Mary Gough

[Koca Kalesi]

Early Christian monastery on the southern slopes of the Taurus Mountains in Isauria, part of the Roman province of Cilicia in south-western Turkey. It is some 300 m above the main road between Silifke (anc. Seleucia) and Konya (anc. Iconium), 21 km north of Mut (anc. Claudiopolis). From two funerary inscriptions, pottery and coins, the monastery may be securely dated to the reigns of two Isaurian emperors, Leo (reg ad 457–74) and Zeno (reg 474–91).

The monastery was originally founded in a series of caves in a limestone outcrop at the west end of a narrow mountain ledge. The largest of these caves contained two rock-cut churches. The ledge was later enlarged by quarrying to the north and by the construction of a retaining wall to the south. The earliest building, immediately to the east of the caves, was the three-aisled Basilica. It was originally lavishly decorated, both inside and out, with architectural sculpture in a flowing naturalistic style, including plant forms, birds and fishes; figures occur only on the jambs and lintel of the main doorway between the narthex and the central aisle. On the west side of the lintel is a head of Christ set in a circle supported by angels, and at each end of the lintel and on the doorposts are four busts in high relief, possibly of the Evangelists. On the inner faces of the jambs are full-length figures of the archangels Michael and Gabriel in flat relief, while on the underside of the lintel is a remarkable relief of the four ...

Article

Tania Velmans

Monastery situated on a wooded hill 11 km south of Asenovgrad in Bulgaria. It was founded in 1081 ad by the Georgian donors Grigori and Apazi Pakuriani after they had been granted control over extensive lands in the Rodopi Planina mountains by the Byzantine emperor Alexios Komnenos (reg 1081–1118). The two buildings of art-historical interest are the church of the Holy Archangels and the charnel-house, which lies 400 m east of and below the monastery. The church of the Holy Archangels is a single-nave structure with a dome and an elaborately divided interior. The walls are built of alternating bands of brick and stone, articulated with single-step niches, and there is an elaborate frieze of brickwork meander around the top of the dome’s drum. Numerous restorations have obliterated the original plan of the charnel-house (18×7 m), which has two storeys of single naves with eastern apses and western narthexes. Inside is a series of paintings mostly dated to the late 11th century and signed by ...

Article

Hafez K. Chehab

[Bayt al-dīn; (Qasr) Beit ed Din; Bteddin]

Palace on Mt Lebanon, south-east of Beirut. Built between 1804 and 1829 by the amir Bashir II Shihab, ruler of Mt Lebanon (reg 1788–1840), this stone palace is divided into three units: the Dar al-Barraniyya with an outer gate, large reception area and court; the Dar al-Wusta (1829) with reception and administrative areas; and the Dar al-Harim (1806) for the prince and his relatives. The marble gate of the Dar al-Harim is shaded by a two-storey iwan and the façade is shaded by a wooden porch. The three-storey quarters contain a formal reception hall decorated with marble panels in the Ottoman style and several apartments, courts and halls richly decorated with carved marble and painted wood. This luminous palace was surrounded by gardens irrigated by an aqueduct.

J. L. Burckhardt: Travels in Syria and the Holy Land (London, 1822), pp. 193–205H. O. Fleischer: ‘Über das syrische Fürstenhaus der Benu-Schihab’, ...

Article

Denys Pringle

[Coquet Castle; Arab. Kawkab al-Hawā, Kaukab el Hawā; now Heb. Kôkhov ha-Yardēn, Kokhav Hayarden]

Crusader castle in Israel built by the Knights Hospitaller c. 1168 and occupied until 1219. It is situated c. 12 km south of the Sea of Galilee, on the eastern edge of a plateau from where it overlooks the Jordan Valley and the site of what in the 12th century would have been the principal river crossings between the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem and its Muslim neighbours. Some form of castle already occupied the site before April 1168, when it was sold to the Hospital of St John. All trace of this early structure, however, seems to have been removed by the Hospitallers, who almost at once began to build there the ‘very strong and spacious castle’ recorded by the pilgrim Theodoric in his Libellus de locis sanctis around 1172, and which William of Tyre described in 1182 in his Chronicon as a ‘new castle, whose name today is Belueir’....

Article

Mark Whittow

[Turk.: ‘The Thousand and One Churches’]

Group of late Roman and Byzantine sites on the Karadağ, an isolated mountain in the plain north of the Taurus Mountains in the modern province of Karaman in south-central Turkey (Roman and Byzantine Lykaonia). The mountain has been convincingly identified as the site of Barata, a minor city attested as a bishopric from the 4th century ad to the 12th. On the mountain there are the remains of over 40 churches and associated buildings. These are concentrated in two groups: a lower settlement now known as Maden Șehir and an upper settlement called Değler. There are also numerous other remains on the Karadağ, including some Hittite rock carvings, several churches built on the peaks of the mountain and several medieval fortifications.

Although known to scholars since 1826, the first and only survey of the Karadağ was that carried out by Sir William Ramsay (1851–1939) and Gertrude Bell in ...

Article

Lawrence E. Butler

[Zeyrek Mosque](Istanbul)

Middle Byzantine monastery church on the Fourth Hill in Istanbul, Turkey, overlooking the Golden Horn (see fig. above). It was built as the funerary church of the Komnenian dynasty in the early 12th century. It was sacked by the Venetians in 1204, but towards the end of Latin rule it was used as their headquarters. Under the Palaiologan emperors the monastery was restored and resumed its role as one of the most important religious centres in Constantinople. After the Ottoman conquest, it was converted to a mosque (Turk. Zeyrek Camii).

The complex consists of two churches with a mausoleum chapel between them. They originally formed the centre of a large monastery that included a hospital, leprosarium and hospice for aged men. The monastery’s typikon, or constitution, dated October 1136, prescribes the administration of the monastery and its dependencies. The detailed liturgical instructions have allowed scholars to identify the parts of the extant building and reconstruct its decoration, while soundings by Megaw during restoration work in the 1950s clarified the construction sequence. The south church, dedicated to Christ, was possibly begun by Empress ...

Article

Robert Ousterhout

[Kariye Mosque](Istanbul)

Byzantine church located just inside the Adrianople Gate (now Edirne Kapisi) in Istanbul and one of the finest examples of Late Byzantine art (see fig.). It served as the katholikon of the Chora Monastery; none of the conventual buildings survives. The church was rebuilt in its present form c. 1316–21 and decorated with wall paintings and mosaics commissioned by Theodore Metochites (1270–1332). The building was converted to a mosque about 1510 (Turk. Kariye Camii); it was restored under the direction of Paul Underwood between 1948 and 1958 and is now preserved as a museum.

The building’s structural history is complex and scholars remain uncertain as to its origin, for although the foundations may date from the 6th and 9th centuries, the rising walls of the nave are no earlier than the late 11th century. In the early 12th century the sebastokrator ...

Article

See also Jerusalem

The early history and appearance of the church remain uncertain, owing to the many changes that have taken place on the site and the impossibility of thorough excavation. All architectural development was conditioned by the sites of the Crucifixion (Calvary) and the Tomb of Christ, in a former stone quarry. Fixed points of lesser significance were the grotto now known as the Prison of Christ and St Helena’s crypt, the underground cave where St Helena discovered the Cross. After the rediscovery of the Holy Places by Constantine (reg 306–37) in 326 they immediately became the focus of Christian veneration. Both Calvary and the Tomb of Christ were isolated by cutting away the surrounding rock and earth, making them free-standing blocks, not unlike the surviving rock tombs in the Kidron Valley. Between 326 and 337 the Tomb of Christ was surrounded by the so-called Anastasis (Resurrection) Rotunda. East of this was a roughly rectangular courtyard, surrounded by a peristyle, with Calvary forming the south-east corner and the Prison the north-east corner. To the east of the courtyard itself was a large five-aisled basilica, its apse facing to the west, and enclosing the crypt of St Helena....

Article

Lioba Theis

[Kalenderhane Mosque](Istanbul)

Byzantine church in Istanbul, now the Kalenderhane Mosque. It is located on the Third Hill, c. 250 m east of the Aqueduct of Valens (ad 375). The church’s dedication is based on the inscription ‘Mother of God of Kyriotissa’ accompanying two icons of the Virgin that were discovered during excavations to the north of the church by L. Striker and Y. Kuban from 1966; these excavations also helped to date the core of the building to the 12th century.

The present cross-domed building appears to rise from an almost square ground-plan with towering, barrel-vaulted transepts and a central dome on a 16-sided drum. The structure incorporates the walls of several earlier buildings: to the north are several round structures belonging to baths of the late 4th century or the early 5th, which were superseded as early as the 6th century by an apsidal building. The present apse and bema may belong to the diakonikon erected to the south of this ...

Article

Mark Dike DeLancey

[Jenne] [Friday Mosque]

Malian mosque that was built in 1906–7 in the Sudanese style under the direction of master mason Ismaïla Traoré. Local historical traditions state that a mosque was first built on this site in the 12th century, replacing the palace of Djenné’s ruler Koi Konboro after he converted to Islam. By the turn of the 20th century the mosque was in ruins.

The mosque’s heavy earthen walls (see fig.) are inset with wooden timbers that act as scaffolding for replastering, while numerous pilasters create a sense of verticality. The horizontal emphasis of the eastern qibla wall is broken by three huge towers, creating a rhythmic alternation of reserved horizontal wall surfaces and projecting vertical towers. Towers in the centre of the north and south walls provide rooftop access for the call to prayer via internal staircases. A monumental entrance on the north side is composed of three projecting pillars enclosing two deep recesses. Seven projections at the top of the portal echo the tops of the pilasters extending beyond the roofline of the mosque walls....

Article

Leslie Brubaker

(Istanbul)

This mosque forms part of a large complex (partially destr.) begun in 1461 by Mehmed II (reg 1444–81 with interruption). It occupies the site of the early 4th-century Church of the Holy Apostles (Gr. Apostoleion), which was built just inside the Constantinian walls on the highest hill of the city.

One of the most famous and influential churches of the Byzantine empire, its foundation has usually been attributed to Constantine (reg 285–337). It survived as a ruin, until it was dismantled by Mehmed II (see §2 below). Consequently the physical remains of the church are no longer accessible, and modern understanding of the building rests on documentary evidence.

Two definite architectural campaigns and at least two interior redecorations are recorded, but many details remain conjectural. The final result of the first campaign was a church following the Greek-cross plan, but the initial form of the building is still subject to argument. Mango (...

Article

Patrick Donabédian

Armenian monastery c. 30 km east of Erevan, set among the wild and impressive rock faces of the deep valley of the River Azat. In the early 4th century ad a monastery known as Ayrivank’ (‘cave monastery’) was founded on this site in a cave. The name Geghard dates from the 13th century, when a fragment of the Holy Lance (Armen. geghard; now in Ēdjmiadzin Cathedral, Sacristy) was brought here. The monastery is set in a courtyard (c. 100×65 m) surrounded on three sides by walls with towers and on the fourth (north) by a rock face. The earliest monument is the chapel of St Grigor the Illuminator (later dedicated to the Mother of God) which lies outside the monastery walls 100 m to the west and, according to inscriptions, dates from as early as 1160. At the beginning of the 13th century the site became the property of the Zakarid princes under whom the monastery developed. Around ...

Article

V. Beridze

Architectural complex founded in 1106 as a monastery and academy on the south bank of the Tskaltsitela River, 12 km from Kutaisi, Georgia. It was founded by King David III the Builder (reg 1089–1125) and is generally regarded as the most important centre of medieval Georgian culture and art. Among the many outstanding scholars there was the Neo-Platonist philosopher Ioann Petrisi (fl c. 1080–1120), who translated texts of Aristotle and Proclus into Georgian and wrote commentaries upon them. The wealth of the monastery was based on land grants and contributions from the Georgian kings and from private individuals.

Three churches now remain, together with a bell-tower and the ruins of the academy building. The main church (1106–25) is dedicated to the Dormition and has a cruciform plan (35.5×35 m) with three projecting eastern apses and a dome resting on two piers and the corners of the altar apse. Three chapels were subsequently added to the east, south and north sides in the 12th and 13th centuries. The walls are built with hewn stone and decorated on the exterior with a complex system of arches. The interior decoration includes a mosaic (...

Article

Walter B. Denny

(Istanbul)

Market in Istanbul, Turkey. A first market hall (Turk. bedesten) was built c. 1460 on a site in the traditional commercial centre of Constantinople, near the major Byzantine fora and the Mese, the major east–west artery later known as Divan Yolu. A second market hall, known as Sandal Bedesten (‘Market of Chairs’), was built near by also under Mehmed II (not under Süleyman as often supposed). Surrounding these market halls, a network of covered streets was built up over the centuries, with a wide variety of vaulting and dome systems adapted to the irregular plan and terrain. The major east–west street of Kalpakçilar is the most impressive space, while the triple-arcaded spaces on three sides of the Great Bedesten form one of the most distinctive and attractive aspects of the complex. The bazaar has suffered from major fires, the latest in 1954, resulting in substantial rebuilding and restoration. By the mid-20th century it comprised thousands of metres of covered ways connecting the two market halls with over a dozen caravanserais (...

Article

Slobodan Ćurčić

(Istanbul)

This was the principal residence of Byzantine emperors from Constantine the Great (reg 306–37) to Alexios I (reg 1081–1118) and the symbolic nerve centre of the empire. Also known as the Sacred Palace, it was the Byzantine equivalent of the Palatine in Rome. The Great Palace was a large complex of buildings and gardens situated on a terraced, roughly trapezoidal site, measuring c. 600×500 m (see fig.), and overlooking the Sea of Marmara to the south-east. The complex was enclosed by the Hippodrome to the west, by the Regia (a ceremonial extension of the Mese; 13b), the Augustaion (13c), and the Senate to the north (13d), and by the sea walls to the south and east. Modern understanding of the Great Palace depends heavily on the literary sources (e.g. the Book of Ceremonies by Constantine VII; Theophanes continuatus) and, to a lesser degree, on the meagre archaeological evidence. Of the few archaeologically explored components of the palace complex, the largest is an apsed hall (13e) preceded by a large peristyle court (13f) with splendid floor mosaics (first half of 6th century; Istanbul, Mosaic Mus.), which feature hunting and pastoral scenes combined with figures from mythology. The isolated nature of these finds and the ambiguity of the written sources preclude any comprehensive architectural reconstructions of the palace despite repeated attempts since the 19th century....

Article

Patrick Donabédian

Armenian monastery in the village of Haghpat c. 10 km north-east of Alaverdi in the district of T’umanyan, northern Armenia. It is one of the largest and best preserved architectural complexes of medieval Armenia. Its principal buildings are grouped together in a fairly compact manner, surrounded by a vast fortified precinct. Only a small portion of the annexes have survived. Several structures are located outside the complex, including a fort, a hermitage and a fountain (1258).

The monastery was probably founded c. 976, at the time the main church of the Holy Sign (Armen. Sourb Nshan) was built by Queen Khosrovanush, wife of King Ashot III of Ani (reg 952–77). The church’s construction may have been supervised by the Armenian architect Trdat (fl 989–1001) and was completed in 991 by the founder’s two sons, King Smbat (reg 977–89) and Gurgēn, the leader of the small local kingdom of Loṙē. It is a typical example of an Armenian cross-in-rectangle church, with a cylindrical drum surmounted by a conical shaped dome (rest. between the 11th and 13th centuries) and supported by pendentives and arches that spring from piers with engaged columns. The façades are articulated with pairs of tall V-shaped slits. On the east façade, the rectangular recess beneath the gable contains a relief of the two donor brothers holding a model of the church and crowned according to their respective ranks: Smbat wears a voluminous turban presented to the Bagratid kings by the caliphs, whereas Gurgēn wears a sort of helmet....

Article

[Irene](Istanbul)

Byzantine church in the southern region of Istanbul, to the north of Hagia Sophia. According to several ancient sources it occupies the site of a church that predated the reign of Constantine I, but which he then rebuilt on a larger scale and dedicated to Eirene (‘peace’). This second church was destroyed by the Nika riots fire of 532 and rebuilt by Justinian I. Damage caused by the earthquake of 740 resulted in the reconstruction of most of the church’s superstructure. Surviving portions of Justinian’s church include the atrium and some lower sections of the external walls. The present church is a three-aisled basilica (58×30 m) with a central dome (diam. c. 16 m) with windows, a domical vault without windows over the west bay of the nave, and barrel-vaulted galleries along the south, north and west sides. The present arcading with four columns dates from the 8th century, while the Justinianic atrium was probably similar in arrangement to that of St John at Ephesos with five columns (...

Article

Robin Cormack

(Istanbul)

Byzantine church near the apex of the city’s peninsula (see fig.a). From the date of its dedication in 360 until 1453, it served as the cathedral of Constantinople except between 1204 and 1261, when it was the cathedral of the Latin empire. The building was a mosque from 23 May 1453 until 1934, when it was secularized; it was opened as a museum on 1 February 1935.

Soon after the foundation of Constantinople in 330, a cathedral and episcopal complex of buildings was planned for the central and prominent site on the acropolis of ancient Byzantion (see Istanbul §I, 1, (ii)), adjacent to the area on which the Great Palace was being developed. Hagia Eirene (‘Holy Peace’) was finished first and acted as the cathedral until Hagia Sophia (‘Holy Wisdom’) was dedicated under Constantius in 360. Thereafter they acted together as the principal churches of the empire and the seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople, as well as the site of major imperial public ceremonial. Despite the specific dedication of the churches to Holy Wisdom and to Holy Peace, they should probably be understood as dedicated to Christ, evoked by two of his attributes....

Article

Jonathan M. Bloom

[khānaqāh]

Building reserved for Muslim mystics belonging to a religious order. The Arabic word is of Persian origin (khān: ‘lodging’; gāh: ‘place’), but several variant forms (khanqah, khanka etc) underscore its distance from that origin. The word first appeared in the works of 10th-century geographers in reference to Manichaean institutions of teaching and evangelism in eastern Iran and Transoxiana, as well as to those of the ascetic Karrami sect of Islam. By the end of the century, however, khānaqāhs begin to be associated with groups of Sufis, who lived a communal mystical life regulated by a code of rules. The khānaqāh seems to have absorbed and replaced the earlier institution of the ribāṭ, although in some regions the two terms, together with zāwiya, were used interchangeably. In the second half of the 11th century, adherents of khānaqāhs allied themselves with the ruling Saljuq élite and vice versa, which led to the rapid proliferation of the institution throughout the eastern Islamic lands under Saljuq suzerainty. The spread of the ...

Article

Hafez K. Chehab

[Crac de Montréal; Montréal; Mons Regalus; Shaubak; Shawbak]

Castle in Jordan, south of Amman. Built in 1115 by King Baldwin I of Jerusalem (reg 1100–18) to menace the pilgrimage road to Mecca, the castle of Monreal surrendered to the Ayyubid ruler Salah al-Din (Saladin) in 1189. It was given to his brother al-Malik al-Adil (reg 1196–1218), whose son al-Mu‛azzam (reg 1218–27) enlarged and restored the fortress in 1226. Under the Mamluks (reg 1250–1517) it was known as Shawbak and became the centre of a district of the province of Kerak. Remains include several round towers and a deep well with a stairway said to lead to a spring, as well as two fragmentary churches with pointed vaults. Most of the fortress was rebuilt by the Ayyubids and Mamluks, but by 1340 the site was described as abandoned.

E. Brünnow and A. von Domaszewski: Die Provincia Arabia, 1 (Strasbourg, 1904), pp. 113–19P. Deschamps: ‘Les Deux Cracs des croisés’, ...