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Carola Hicks

English country house near Woodstock, Oxon, designed by John Vanbrugh for John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. It was begun in 1705 and completed c. 1725. The gardens, initially laid out by Vanbrugh and Henry Wise, were largely redesigned in 1764–74 by ‘Capability’ Brown. Blenheim Palace is regarded as one of the finest examples of English Baroque architecture. It was a gift to the Duke from a grateful Crown and nation to commemorate his victory in 1704 over the French and Bavarians at Blenheim (now Blindheim) during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). The intention was to create a public monument symbolizing the glory of Britain and a palace fit for a hero, rather than a building on a domestic scale. This is reflected in Vanbrugh’s dramatic and monumental design, inspired by both English and French architecture, which developed the style he had begun to formulate in his earlier work at Castle Howard, N. Yorks. In both undertakings he was assisted by ...

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Maria Angela Mattevi

[Buon Consiglio; Trent; Trento]

Vast monumental complex built between the north and east gates of the ancient city walls (c. 1200–20) of Trent, the capital of Trentino in Italy. It has three main nuclei: the Castelvecchio, the Magno Palazzo and the Giunta Albertiana. The oldest part, Castelvecchio, was built (1239–55) around the strong donjon, the Torre d’Augusto, by the Imperial Podestà of Trent, Sodegerio da Tito (d 1255), who took up office in 1238. Its function was predominantly military. In 1277 it passed to the Church and became the residence of the prince–bishop of Trent. In subsequent centuries a series of modifications and extensions have brought the castle to its present form. Of fundamental importance were the works completed in 1475 by Giovanni Hinderbach (d 1486) with the aid of Venetian craftsmen, who built the Renaissance Gothic internal court with tiered open galleries and the small loggia on the third floor. At that time the walls of the upper loggia were frescoed with portraits of the bishops of Trent from the city’s origin to the year ...

Article

Charles Saumarez Smith

English country house in N. Yorks built (1701–24) by John Vanbrugh for Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle; the gardens were laid out by George London during the same period. One of the largest, grandest and, architecturally, most important country houses in England, Castle Howard was first planned in October 1698, when the 3rd Earl took out a lease for life on the ruinous Henderskelfe Castle (burnt 1693; destr. 1724) and its manor from his grandmother, Anne Howard, Countess of Carlisle. The following spring he consulted the architect William Talman, Comptroller of Works to William III, on the design for a house to replace the old castle of Henderskelfe, but during the summer Talman was supplanted by the playwright John Vanbrugh. Castle Howard was Vanbrugh’s first important architectural commission. A model in wood was shown to the King in the summer of 1700, and work on the hill-top site began in the spring of ...

Article

Hakon Lund

Danish castle c. 40 km north-west of Copenhagen. The summer residence of the Danish court, it was originally a hunting seat, built in 1719–22 for Frederick IV (reg 1699–1730) by Johann Cornelius Krieger. It comprised a corps-de-logis and an octagonal forecourt surrounded by single-storey buildings. The corps-de-logis, the nucleus of the layout, is a centralized building with a square hall in the middle, two storeys high and surmounted by a four-sided cupola. The plan of the building is derived from the Palladian villa type, but the shape of the cupola gives the exterior a French rather than Italian appearance. The central hall is undoubtedly inspired by a similar room in the Palazzo Albergati in Bologna, attributed to Baldassare Peruzzi, which Frederick visited twice. An unexecuted project (1708; Washington, DC, Lib. Congr.), which the King commissioned from Francesco Muttoni in Vicenza, could have been influential, despite its megalomaniac appearance, in the choice of the Palladian central plan and some of the stuccowork in the cupola room. It remains, however, an original design. Krieger also laid out the semicircular garden directly in front of the building....

Article

Simon Thurley

English palace situated on the north bank of the River Thames, c. 23 km upstream from central London. In the building that survives, two main periods of work can be seen: the remains of the Tudor royal palace, begun by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey between 1514 and 1529 and completed by Henry VIII between 1529 and 1547; and the Baroque palace built for William and Mary between 1688 and 1702 by Christopher Wren. The palace has also been continually altered and repaired up to the present day. The Tudor part of the building is probably the most important surviving example of early Tudor domestic architecture in England, and the Wren building contains one of the finest collections of early 18th-century decorative arts in situ.

The earliest buildings (destr.) on the site belonged to the Knights Hospitallers of the Order of St John of Jerusalem, although little is known about the nature of these buildings. The first important period of expansion began ...

Article

Mario Schwarz

Cistercian abbey in the Vienna Woods, Lower Austria. Heiligenkreuz, the oldest Cistercian abbey in the region once ruled by the house of Babenberg, was founded in 1135 by Margrave Leopold III of Austria (reg 1096–1136). It was settled with monks from Morimond Abbey in France, and a temporary building was consecrated in 1136. From the time of Leopold IV (reg 1136–41) Heiligenkreuz was the preferred burial place of the Babenbergs.

The nave of the church, begun before 1147 and consecrated in 1187, is an ashlar building, which at first had a flat ceiling. Excavations have shown that the original east end consisted of three apses without a transept. In 1147 Henry II (reg 1141–77) donated the village of Münchendorf and its revenues to the abbey, making it possible to vault the church, and a further endowment in 1156 enabled the monastic buildings to be rebuilt in stone. The five-bay aisled nave, the proportions of which are based on a module derived from the crossing square, has alternating supports. The aisles are groin-vaulted, but the main vessel has domical vaults with ribs of a plain, rectangular profile, the transverse arches resting on short pilasters corbelled above the arcade (...

Article

Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

Castle in Salzburg, Austria. To the south of Salzburg, Archbishop Marcus Sitticus von Hohenems (reg 1612–19) commissioned Santino Solari to build a small castle to be used as a summer palace. Schloss Hellbrunn (1613–19) is a most perfect realization of the Italian villa suburbana and the earliest of its kind north of the Alps. Situated at the end of a long avenue, the building is a cube of classic simplicity, with a bifurcate staircase opening on to a cour d’honneur. The most remarkable interior features are the Festsaal (banqueting hall), set asymmetrically on the west side, and its projecting octagon, with frescoes by Arsenio Mascagni (1579–1636). Hellbrunn’s main attraction, however, is its gardens. The Lustgarten or Pleasure Garden was laid out north of the castle and furnished with an unusual variety of grottoes, fountains, ponds and other features including the Roman Theatre, a miniature exedra dominated by a statue of ...

Article

D. O. Shvidkovsky

Monastery at Teryayevo in Russia, some 110 km north-west of Moscow. It was founded in 1479 by Iosif Volotsky (1439–1515), who successfully resisted the 15th-century movement to secularize monastic properties, and was partially paid for by the Grand Princes of Moscow, who helped to establish it as a centre for icon painting and manuscript illumination and who established its collection of ancient reliquaries. Between 1484 and 1500 Dionisy painted an extensive series of icons for the monastery.

The monastery’s first stone church was built between 1484 and 1486 and was surrounded by brick walls c. 1543–66. The whole complex, which is enclosed on two sides by a lake, was completely rebuilt between the 1670s and 1690s and is a fine example of 17th-century Russian architecture, with its numerous white walls and towers and well-proportioned stone-stepped roofs. A two-storey building pierced by two asymmetrically placed gates, the Holy Gates, serves as the main entrance to the monastery. The five-domed church of the Dormition (...

Article

Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha and Martina Pippal

Benedictine abbey complex in Upper Austria, south of Linz.

Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

Tassilo III, Duke of Bavaria (reg 748–88) and close rival to Charlemagne, founded the abbey in ad 777. Throughout the 13th century the early Carolingian structure was gradually turned into a high medieval complex, and this has survived under the Baroque rebuilding of the 17th and 18th centuries. However, all that remains visible today is a small porch, originally leading to the cloister (now the Kreuzhof), the polygonal apse of the choir and the two chapels in the west towers of the church. The south chapel houses the cenotaph (c. 1300) of the founder’s son Gunther.

Soon after 1600 a large-scale reconstruction was begun; it was carried out continuously during the following 150 years, leaving the abbey in its present state, as a fairly symmetrical layout of several courtyards, with the outer and the inner areas separated by a moat. Of the early 17th-century work, the first building, the Abteitrakt (...

Article

Anna Bentkowska

[Ger. Leubus

Former Cistercian abbey near Wrocław in Silesia, south-west Poland, one of the largest Baroque abbeys in central Europe (main complex: 223×118 m), situated south of Lubiąż village on the west bank of the Odra (Ger. Oder), surrounded by defence walls and moats, fields and woods. It was formerly also a centre of music. The abbey’s present imposing appearance is the result of a remodelling in 1681–1739. It was founded in 1163 as the first Cistercian abbey in Silesia by Boleslav I of Silesia (reg 1163–1201), who brought the Order from Pforta on Saal in Thuringia. The monks settled on the site, which c. 1150–63 had been occupied by Benedictines. The first Romanesque church is mentioned in a document of 1208, but the only element surviving from that building is a small column (c. 1230–40), originally a piscina, preserved in the choir. The capital is elaborately carved with bird and plant motifs and has traces of polychromy. In the late 13th century and the early 14th that church was replaced by the existing Gothic basilica with its rectangular ambulatory; a ducal burial chapel was added in ...

Article

Christian F. Otto

Benedictine abbey, 16 km from Nördlingen, in the Swabian Alps, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It was founded in 1095 by Graf Hartmann I von Dillingen. Its first church was built in the 12th century, but in 1695, to mark the 600th anniversary of the monastery, the façade and interior were remodelled in the Baroque style, although the tower, built in 1617–26 by Peter Schwarz (d 1626) in a Romanesque style, was left unaltered. At the same time new service buildings were constructed, and in 1699–1726 new monastic quarters, designed by Michael Weidemann, were built. The final phase of building was the construction of a new church. A site on the northern edge of the monastic complex was prepared in 1745, before an architect had been selected.

In 1747 the abbot Aurelius Braisch engaged Balthasar Neumann to design the church, having been impressed by his Benedictine monastery church of Münsterschwarzach, begun in ...

Article

Josef Strasser

Palace complex at Oberschleissheim, 18 km north of Munich, consisting of three palaces: the Altes Schloss, Lustheim and the Neues Schloss. William V, Duke of Bavaria, had a simple mansion (1598–1600) built here. His son Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, had a large new structure, the Altes Schloss (1616–23; extensively damaged 1944; façade rebuilt 1972–4), erected to plans by Heinrich Schön the elder. A single main storey is articulated by disproportionately broad pilasters above a high half-basement. A steep pitched roof crowns the scheme. An external staircase in symmetrically paired flights leads to a porch, the pediment of which rests on rusticated piers; its pitch differs from that of the gable of the raised central bay behind. The interior decoration was by Peter Candid.

Elector Maximilian II Emanuel had a banqueting house called Lustheim (1684–8) erected to the east, in line with the Altes Schloss. Designed by ...

Article

Christian F. Otto

Pilgrimage church overlooking the River Main, near Banz, Franconia, Germany ( see fig. ). The original chapel was built in 1457 on the site where, in the 1440s, a young shepherd had had visions of the 14 helper saints. According to medieval legend, the helper saints acted as intercessors in times of plague and epidemics. The chapel became an increasingly popular place of pilgrimage, and in 1735 the abbot Stephan Mösinger of the Cistercian monastery at Langheim proposed a larger and more imposing building. Projects were submitted several years later. Gottfried Heinrich Krohne’s plan of 1739 was for a centralized church extended by a small choir where the shrine was to be placed, an impractical design that would not have accommodated processions or provided enough space for visitors to view the shrine. Another proposal of 1737 by Johann Jakob Michael Küchel, who had worked under Balthasar Neumann at Bamberg, placed the shrine beneath a vast dome flanked by spacious transepts....

Article

Richard John

( Rome )

In 1746 Cardinal Alessandro Albani acquired a vineyard between the Via Nomentana and the Via Salaria, with the intention of providing a suitable setting for his collection of ancient sculpture (see Antiquarian revivals in Rome, §2 ). From 1758 he was assisted in this collection by his librarian, the antiquary and Neo-classical theorist Johann Joachim Winckelmann. Carlo Marchionni, who had previously worked for the Cardinal at Anzio and Castelgandolfo, was commissioned to design the main palace (for discussion and illustration see Marchionni, Carlo), which was constructed between 1755 and 1762. The result is a late essay in the Roman Baroque. The massive central block in nine bays consists of an open ground floor loggia of compressed Serlianas flanked by banded Ionic pilasters (see Italy, fig. ). Above, the piano nobile is articulated by plain Corinthian pilasters flanking windows with rusticated surrounds surmounted by combined segmental and triangular pediments. The loggia is continued at reduced height and stepped back to create single-storey lateral galleries. In the architecture of the palace only the horizontality and lack of central emphasis of the main block foreshadow the values and interests of Neo-classicism. These are strongly evident, however, in the interiors, decorated and painted by Anton Raphael Mengs (especially the ...