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E. Errington


Buddhist monastery on a small hill 13 km from Mardan, north-east of Peshawar, Pakistan, which flourished from c. ad 100 to c. 400. The site was discovered by Alexander Cunningham in 1848. In 1852, two British officers, Stokes and Lumsden, searched unsuccessfully for relics in the main stupa and collected sculptures (destroyed in the Crystal Palace fire, London, 1866). Major excavations were undertaken by the Punjab government in 1873 and by the Archaeological Survey of India in the 1920s. The finds are now divided between museums in Pakistan, India and England (Pakistan: Peshawar Mus., Lahore Mus.; India: Chandigarh, Govt Mus. & A.G.; Calcutta, Ind. Mus.; Patna Mus.; Bombay, Prince of Wales Mus.; Lucknow, State Mus.; England: London, BM and V&A).

Only the circular base of the main stupa survives, encircled by a ring of 15 chapels. Stairs lead to a lower rectangular courtyard containing votive stupas and shrines and descend again to a second courtyard. These areas produced the majority of schist sculptures from the site. Stucco figures were also found on the main stupa and chapel façades. The principal buildings include a series of halls but no monastery. Instead, separate terraced units, each comprising several houses, shrines and a stupa, extend across the steep escarpment of the site. Diaper masonry is used throughout, except for a few earlier rubble walls, and the so-called Conference Hall, which is built in a transitional style between diaper and semi-ashlar masonry. The most important inscription from Jamalgarhi is a stone slab dated in the year 359 of an unspecified era. ...


Maurizio Taddei

Buddhist monastery associated with the ancient town of Kapishi (Kāpiśī), now Begram, Afghanistan. Built on a fortified spur dominating the Panjshir Valley (the Kuh-i Pahlavan), the site is one of the seven or eight monasteries near the ancient town. Shotorak has been identified as the saṃghārāma that, according to the 7th-century ad Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang, was built by the Kushana king Kanishka to accommodate Chinese hostages during the hot season. The site was excavated in 1937 by the Délégation Archéologique Française en Afghanistan, while Qul-i-Nader and Tepe Kalan, two other sites in the neighbourhood, were hurriedly excavated in 1939 and 1940 respectively. The finds from Shotorak were divided between the Kabul Museum and the Musée Guimet, Paris.

The main stupa (8 m sq.), in the extreme western part of the site, and the subsidiary stupas are all built of schist diaper masonry (see Afghanistan, §II, 1, (i), (c)) and often decorated with trilobated niches. Figural decoration consists of schist ...



E. Errington

[Shakar Tangai]

Buddhist monastery in Mardan District, Pakistan, north-east of Peshawar that flourished from around the 2nd to the 3rd century ad. Records of the Archaeological Survey locate Sikri 1.6 km west of the Thareli ruins and 3.2 km north-east of Sawaldher village. A Pakistani survey in 1987 re-identified the site, which is now obscured by woodland. Sikri was discovered by Harold Deane in 1888. No copy of Deane’s excavation report of 1888–9 has been traced, but his plan survives in the Lahore Museum. It shows a P-shaped complex, orientated north–south beside a ravine. The larger northern area (approximately 21×23 m) has a central platform (approximately 11 m square) approached by steps from the south. The platform contains a circular stupa base (diam. 3 m) set on a plinth (w. 9 m). The surrounding courtyard has square votive stupa bases, niches and open-fronted shrines beside the platform and along the east, north and south enclosure walls. On the west side are two free-standing pillars. A small shrine in the centre of the eastern wall housed the famous schist statue of the emaciated Siddhartha (so-called ‘fasting Buddha’; Lahore Mus., no. ...



Önhan Tunca, E. P. Uphill, Rob Jameson, Georges Roux, F. B. Sear, Adam Hardy, Ye. V. Zeymal’, Henrik H. Sørensen, Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt, Chang Kyung-Ho, Bruce A. Coats, H. Stanley Loten, Madeline McLeod, and Norman Bancroft-Hunt

Building or site conceived as the dwelling of a deity, whose presence is represented by a holy symbol. The word derives from the Greek word temenos, meaning ‘an enclosure’. In Latin the word templum originally denoted a place marked out for augury by the augur with his staff but later came to mean an area sacred to a particular deity and was also used for a large and elaborate structure dedicated to one or more deities. Temples have played and have continued to play a significant role in most religions, and the architecture of the temples of the ancient world, and of Hindu and Buddhist temples, relate to a complex cosmology. Islamic mosques, however, are built for prayer rather than as the abode of the divinity and are therefore not considered as temples. As the temple is usually considered to provide for private rather than congregational worship, Christian churches are also not usually referred to as temples, although ...