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Article

Besakih  

D. J. Stuart-Fox

Balinese Hindu temple (pura) complex. It is situated on the southwestern flank of the volcano Gunung Agung, Bali’s highest mountain, in the northeast of the island. Associated probably since prehistoric times with the Lord of the Mountain, now identified with the Hindu god Shiva, it has been a dynastic temple of several royal families since at least the 15th century. The complex consists of twenty-two temples, spread along three parallel ridges over a distance of more than a kilometer. The complex was not planned as an entity but seems to have been constructed piecemeal, and the overall structure that links the temples is more ritual and symbolic than physical. The annual cycle of more than seventy rituals culminates in the enormous centennial Ekadasa Rudra ceremony.

The symbolic and ritual center of the complex is Pura Penataran Agung, the largest temple, which over the centuries has undergone numerous changes. Its fifty-seven separate structures are arranged on six terraces. Originating probably in a simple prehistoric sanctuary, it has a terraced form suggesting a series of successive enlargements. The earliest structures were probably simple shrines and stone seats, represented now in developed form by the two uppermost shrines dedicated to the Lord of the Mountain. On current evidence, the pagoda-like shrines (...

Article

[Châlons-sur-Marne]

Collegiate church in Champagne, Marne, France. A chapel is known to have existed on the site from at least the 9th century ad. The church was a regular centre of pilgrimage, particularly after 1128, when an epidemic swept the country. In the 12th century Notre-Dame-en-Vaux was under the patronage of the cathedral chapter, but the canons of Notre-Dame vigorously resented any intervention in their administration. Conflicts easily flared up, culminating in a dispute (1180–87) concerning legal rights and prebends.

In 1157 a tower collapsed, initiating the complete reconstruction of the church. The first building campaign (1157–c. 1175) involved the lower levels of the nave and transept. At the same time, a cloister with an important sculptural programme was erected on the north side of the nave. After c. 1180 the construction of the church was interrupted, perhaps owing to the dispute with the cathedral chapter. It is likely that the cloister was already finished at that time. The church was completed in a second campaign from ...

Article

Walter Smith

[Chitorgarh; anc. Citrakuta]

Fort and temple site in southern Rajasthan, India. The name possibly derives from that of its 7th-century ad founder, Chitrangada Maurya. The only artistic remains from this time are some late Gupta-style reliefs incorporated into the 14th-century Annapurna Temple. In the 8th century the Sisodia Rajputs established Chittaurgarh as the capital of Mewar. Of the 8th-century Surya Temple and contemporary structures only the foundations and lower walls remain; stylistically, these relate to the temples of Osian and the Teli ka Mandir of Gwalior. The fort, at the summit of a steep hill about 165 m high, also dates from the 8th century, with many subsequent additions and renovations. It is approached by a series of seven gates (with foundations dating from as early as 1100) leading up a precipitous path. The final gate, the Ram Pol, was built by Rana Kumbha (reg 1433–68) in 1459 and has a corbelled arch and flanking towers with traditional Hindu ornamentation; in form it resembles the early 12th-century gates at ...

Article

E. Errington

[Jamālgarhī]

Buddhist monastery on a small hill 13 km from Mardan, north-east of Peshawar, Pakistan, which flourished from c. ad 100 to c. 400. The site was discovered by Alexander Cunningham in 1848. In 1852, two British officers, Stokes and Lumsden, searched unsuccessfully for relics in the main stupa and collected sculptures (destroyed in the Crystal Palace fire, London, 1866). Major excavations were undertaken by the Punjab government in 1873 and by the Archaeological Survey of India in the 1920s. The finds are now divided between museums in Pakistan, India and England (Pakistan: Peshawar Mus., Lahore Mus.; India: Chandigarh, Govt Mus. & A.G.; Calcutta, Ind. Mus.; Patna Mus.; Bombay, Prince of Wales Mus.; Lucknow, State Mus.; England: London, BM and V&A).

Only the circular base of the main stupa survives, encircled by a ring of 15 chapels. Stairs lead to a lower rectangular courtyard containing votive stupas and shrines and descend again to a second courtyard. These areas produced the majority of schist sculptures from the site. Stucco figures were also found on the main stupa and chapel façades. The principal buildings include a series of halls but no monastery. Instead, separate terraced units, each comprising several houses, shrines and a stupa, extend across the steep escarpment of the site. Diaper masonry is used throughout, except for a few earlier rubble walls, and the so-called Conference Hall, which is built in a transitional style between diaper and semi-ashlar masonry. The most important inscription from Jamalgarhi is a stone slab dated in the year 359 of an unspecified era. ...

Article

Maurizio Taddei

Buddhist monastery associated with the ancient town of Kapishi (Kāpiśī), now Begram, Afghanistan. Built on a fortified spur dominating the Panjshir Valley (the Kuh-i Pahlavan), the site is one of the seven or eight monasteries near the ancient town. Shotorak has been identified as the saṃghārāma that, according to the 7th-century ad Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang, was built by the Kushana king Kanishka to accommodate Chinese hostages during the hot season. The site was excavated in 1937 by the Délégation Archéologique Française en Afghanistan, while Qul-i-Nader and Tepe Kalan, two other sites in the neighbourhood, were hurriedly excavated in 1939 and 1940 respectively. The finds from Shotorak were divided between the Kabul Museum and the Musée Guimet, Paris.

The main stupa (8 m sq.), in the extreme western part of the site, and the subsidiary stupas are all built of schist diaper masonry (see Afghanistan, §II, 1, (i), (c)) and often decorated with trilobated niches. Figural decoration consists of schist ...

Article

Sikri  

E. Errington

[Shakar Tangai]

Buddhist monastery in Mardan District, Pakistan, north-east of Peshawar that flourished from around the 2nd to the 3rd century ad. Records of the Archaeological Survey locate Sikri 1.6 km west of the Thareli ruins and 3.2 km north-east of Sawaldher village. A Pakistani survey in 1987 re-identified the site, which is now obscured by woodland. Sikri was discovered by Harold Deane in 1888. No copy of Deane’s excavation report of 1888–9 has been traced, but his plan survives in the Lahore Museum. It shows a P-shaped complex, orientated north–south beside a ravine. The larger northern area (approximately 21×23 m) has a central platform (approximately 11 m square) approached by steps from the south. The platform contains a circular stupa base (diam. 3 m) set on a plinth (w. 9 m). The surrounding courtyard has square votive stupa bases, niches and open-fronted shrines beside the platform and along the east, north and south enclosure walls. On the west side are two free-standing pillars. A small shrine in the centre of the eastern wall housed the famous schist statue of the emaciated Siddhartha (so-called ‘fasting Buddha’; Lahore Mus., no. ...

Article

George Michell

[Tiruvannāmalai]

Religious centre in Tamil Nadu, India, dedicated to Shiva in the form of the fiery li ṅga (an aniconic emblem of the god). The main temple is the 24-acre Arunachaleshvara complex, built between the 10th century and the 17th. Three sets of walls define concentric rectangular enclosures, with the eastern portions of each forming large courts. The complex is entered from the east. In front of the principal gateway are two colonnades with a central walkway. Four gopuras (towered gateways) are set in the wall of the outer enclosure; that on the east (for illustration see Gopura) is the largest, rising to about 66 m. These structures date to the 16th and 17th centuries. The lower elements (in granite) consist of profusely decorated base mouldings, pilasters and eaves. Finely carved panels are set into the outer walls of the east gopura. The ten diminishing storeys of the superstructure (in brick), soaring in a pyramidal mass above, carry no sculptural imagery. Carvings on the doorjambs and pilasters within the eastern and northern ...