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Hafez K. Chehab

[Bayt al-dīn; (Qasr) Beit ed Din; Bteddin]

Palace on Mt Lebanon, south-east of Beirut. Built between 1804 and 1829 by the amir Bashir II Shihab, ruler of Mt Lebanon (reg 1788–1840), this stone palace is divided into three units: the Dar al-Barraniyya with an outer gate, large reception area and court; the Dar al-Wusta (1829) with reception and administrative areas; and the Dar al-Harim (1806) for the prince and his relatives. The marble gate of the Dar al-Harim is shaded by a two-storey iwan and the façade is shaded by a wooden porch. The three-storey quarters contain a formal reception hall decorated with marble panels in the Ottoman style and several apartments, courts and halls richly decorated with carved marble and painted wood. This luminous palace was surrounded by gardens irrigated by an aqueduct.

J. L. Burckhardt: Travels in Syria and the Holy Land (London, 1822), pp. 193–205H. O. Fleischer: ‘Über das syrische Fürstenhaus der Benu-Schihab’, ...


K. Somervell

English ceramics factory. The factory was founded in 1837 by Edward Bingham (d 1872) in Castle Hedingham, Essex, where there were good-quality deposits of clay. The earliest output was earthenware for local use. During the 1850s Bingham’s son Edward Bingham (1829–c. 1900) took over the factory, and more decorative wares were produced. The first pieces of ornamental ware were red terracotta baskets introduced in 1853 and trelliswork cache-pots in 1854. By 1860 over 60 different types of unglazed vases, baskets and bowls were being produced. In the 1870s more ambitious glazed wares were made. From 1875 lead-glazed wares with moulded reliefs and sgraffito decoration were manufactured in quantity. Included in the range were wares that reflect Bingham’s interest in ceramic products of the 16th and 17th centuries. The range of wares include tigs, mugs, candlesticks, miniature vessels and large vases. In 1899 Bingham’s son Edward William Bingham (...


Gordon Campbell


Julia Robinson

American artists’ space located at 239 Thompson Street at the south edge of Washington Square in New York City. Beginning in the late 1950s the Judson Church hosted experimental avant-garde activities—art installations, Happenings, the beginnings of postmodern dance—launching a now celebrated group of artists, dancers, poets and composers, and fueling the radical downtown art scene. The platform of free expression Judson provided for the untested work of the 1960s generation, at a time when these artists were far from established, was a critical contribution to the invention, originality and ultimate international renown of these preeminent American artists.

Built in 1890 and designed by the renowned architect Stanford White (of McKim, Mead & White), the church’s original mission was to serve the immigrant population of Lower Manhattan with health and recreational programs as well as religious services. In the 1950s Reverend Bob Spike (1949–55) asked his seminary intern, Budd Scott, to go into the neighborhood and spend time with the locals—including a significant contingent of struggling artists—to discover their needs. Scott found out that the artists urgently needed a place to present their work. Judson’s national reputation for fostering radical artistic practice came under the tenure of Reverend Howard Moody (...



Reinhard Zimmermann

Landscape garden set out between 1815 and 1845 by Hermann von Pückler-Muskau on his estate at Muskau, near Cottbus. The River Neisse, which runs through the park, became part of the German–Polish border in 1945; about two-thirds of its total area (545 ha) lies in Poland and a third in Germany. One of the last great creations of the mature style of German landscape gardening, it surrounds the town of Muskau and its Schloss, rising to a moderate height on both sides of the Neisse Valley, in varied scenery with mixed gradients. At the centre, in an oval area between a bend of the river and the town, lies the Schlosspark, which is continued in the Bergpark, beyond the town to the west. The larger part of the park, including the Oberpark, a broad strip along the river, and the Arboretum, further off on high ground, lies to the east, on the Polish side of the Neisse. Pückler’s basic notion for the park was to restore a Utopian ideal: he wanted to display the life of his family (i.e. of the aristocracy) in a romanticized and aesthetically idealized setting, at a time when the middle classes were gaining increasing power. The park should therefore be seen to represent a microcosm of a hierarchical, patriarchal society: a sham castle (unexecuted) on the eastern hills was intended to be the spatial and historical opposite of the industrial landscape incorporating an alum mine in the western Bergpark. Immediately surrounding the palace are pleasure gardens, which include flower gardens, a winter garden, greenhouses and vegetable gardens. Pückler’s treatment of the park boundary is conservative: it is designed not to open the gardens to their surroundings but to isolate the ideal society within from the outside world. The boundary was, in the main, marked by an impenetrable wall of densely planted bushes and trees. However, in ...


Susan B. Taylor

French château near Paris, best known for its gardens, laid out between 1700 and 1789. The château was built and maintained by the d’Angennes family from the 14th to the 17th centuries. Catherine de Vivonne, Marquise de Rambouillet (1588–1665), was responsible for beginning the canal and water networks that were to influence later developments at Rambouillet. The definitive layout of the gardens was made under the financier and courtier Joseph-Jean Baptiste Fleuriau d’Armenonville (1661–1728). To accommodate the site surrounding the château, essentially a flat, swampy terrain, d’Armenonville constructed a canal of 740 m that permitted him to establish parterres close to the château: a geometrical quincunx was laid out to the west, and an avenue of cypress trees from Louisiana (unique in Europe) was planted to the east. A second, transverse, canal created a view towards the forest and the horizon. In the trapezoid formed by these canals were two islands, one of which housed a grotto dedicated to François Rabelais. A ...


Liliana Mavrodinova

The largest active monastery in Bulgaria, situated c. 120 km south-west of Sofia in the valley of the Rilska River, a western tributary of the Struma. The monastery was founded in the 10th century by the Bulgarian saint Ivan of Rila (876–946). In 1335 the local prince Khrelyu (Hrelyu) built a defensive tower and a church dedicated to St Ivan. During the Ottoman period (1393–1878) the monastery was damaged and plundered many times, and most of its present buildings, with the exception of Khrelyu’s tower, date from the 19th century. The monastery is an enclosed courtyard (c. 32,000 sq. m) with five sides and two entrances. The blocks surrounding the yard are mostly four storeys high and house c. 300 cells, 4 chapels, a refectory, libraries and rooms for visitors. From the outside the monastery resembles a fortress, but its internal façades are united by an arcade supported on stone columns, while the floors above open on to wide verandahs. Khrelyu’s tower (h. 23 m) is a square prism in plan with five storeys. The topmost storey projects beyond the others and is supported by three external pilasters on each side; it houses a chapel dedicated to the Transfiguration, which contains wall paintings (...


Christopher Wilson and Mark Stocker

English castle and royal residence in Berkshire.

One of a series of castles that William I (reg 1066–87) established around London, Windsor occupied the nearest strong point in the Thames Valley to the west of the city. From William’s reign date the motte and also the distinctive elongated arrangement of lower, middle, and upper baileys that exploits the lie of the land at the top of a great chalk cliff south of the river. By the reign of Henry I (reg 1100–35) the creation of a large hunting forest, together with the proximity of London, made this a favoured royal residence as well as a fortress. The Round Tower, the stone shell-keep on the motte, may date from this time. The systematic replacement of timber defences by stone walls with rectangular interval towers was begun by Henry II in 1165, but work on the lower bailey was unfinished at his death in ...


Margaret Moore Booker

(World’s Columbian Exhibition, Chicago)

Landmark structure built for the World’s Columbian Exposition held in Chicago in 1893 that was administered, designed, and decorated entirely by women. The Woman’s Building was the most publicized exhibition of women’s art in the 19th century.

A national competition for the building was held, to which 13 designs were submitted by women architects. Sophia G. Hayden (1868–1953) of Jamaica Plains, MA, won first place; her impressive three-story Italian Renaissance-style structure—featuring center and end pavilions, multiple arches, and columned terraces—blended perfectly with the classical architecture of the Exposition. Praised for its “delicacy of line and grace of detail,” the building was recognized by national architectural journals.

Built for $200,000 on the west side of a lagoon, it was approximately 120×60 m and contained a large central Hall of Honor surrounded by meeting rooms (where conferences were held on advancing the rights of women), a library (designed by Candace Wheeler), and a roof-garden restaurant....