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Article

J. J. Martín González

Spanish palace that stands beside the rivers Tagus and Jarama in the province of Madrid, 47 km south of the capital. It was intended as a spring and summer residence for the royal family and is renowned for its gardens and fountains. The summer residence built at Aranjuez in 1387 by Lorenzo Suárez de Figueroa, Grand Master of the Order of Santiago, became royal property under Ferdinand II, King of Aragon, and Isabella, Queen of Castile and León. In the reign of Charles V improvements were carried out by Luis de Vega (from c. 1537) and the palace was extensively enlarged by Philip II. The chapel was designed by Juan Bautista de Toledo and completed by Jerónimo Gili and Juan de Herrera. It was built in a combination of white stone from Colmenar de Oreja and brick, giving a two-toned effect that was adopted for the rest of the palace. In ...

Article

M. I. Andreyev

Estate situated 20 km west of Moscow. It was first recorded in 1537 as the village of Upolzy, and renamed Arkhangel’skoye after a brick church dedicated to the Archangel Michael was built in 1667 to replace a wooden one. From 1703 to 1810 the estate belonged to the princes Golitsyn and from 1810 to 1917 to the princes Yusupov, notably Yusupov family, §1. In 1919 it became a museum-estate.

One of the finest Russian palace and park ensembles, Arkhangel’skoye has as its nucleus a Neo-classical palace, connected to the two wings set in front of the main façade by powerful Tuscan colonnades. It was built by local serf craftsmen between 1780 and 1790 to a plan by the French architect Charles de Guerney. The strict symmetry of the palace’s architecture is underscored by the severe belvedere and central portico with four Ionic columns; on the opposite side, overlooking the park, the projection of an oval room, decorated with a pair of Ionic columns, echoes the portico. In ...

Article

Besakih  

D. J. Stuart-Fox

Balinese Hindu temple (pura) complex. It is situated on the southwestern flank of the volcano Gunung Agung, Bali’s highest mountain, in the northeast of the island. Associated probably since prehistoric times with the Lord of the Mountain, now identified with the Hindu god Shiva, it has been a dynastic temple of several royal families since at least the 15th century. The complex consists of twenty-two temples, spread along three parallel ridges over a distance of more than a kilometer. The complex was not planned as an entity but seems to have been constructed piecemeal, and the overall structure that links the temples is more ritual and symbolic than physical. The annual cycle of more than seventy rituals culminates in the enormous centennial Ekadasa Rudra ceremony.

The symbolic and ritual center of the complex is Pura Penataran Agung, the largest temple, which over the centuries has undergone numerous changes. Its fifty-seven separate structures are arranged on six terraces. Originating probably in a simple prehistoric sanctuary, it has a terraced form suggesting a series of successive enlargements. The earliest structures were probably simple shrines and stone seats, represented now in developed form by the two uppermost shrines dedicated to the Lord of the Mountain. On current evidence, the pagoda-like shrines (...

Article

Carola Hicks

English country house near Woodstock, Oxon, designed by John Vanbrugh for John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. It was begun in 1705 and completed c. 1725. The gardens, initially laid out by Vanbrugh and Henry Wise, were largely redesigned in 1764–74 by ‘Capability’ Brown. Blenheim Palace is regarded as one of the finest examples of English Baroque architecture. It was a gift to the Duke from a grateful Crown and nation to commemorate his victory in 1704 over the French and Bavarians at Blenheim (now Blindheim) during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). The intention was to create a public monument symbolizing the glory of Britain and a palace fit for a hero, rather than a building on a domestic scale. This is reflected in Vanbrugh’s dramatic and monumental design, inspired by both English and French architecture, which developed the style he had begun to formulate in his earlier work at Castle Howard, N. Yorks. In both undertakings he was assisted by ...

Article

Christian F. Otto

German palace in the town of Bruchsal, situated c. 25 km south of Speyer between Heidelberg and Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg. When Damian Hugo Schönborn was elected Prince–Bishop of Speyer in 1719, he initially intended to rebuild the destroyed bishop’s palace that was attached to the north flank of Speyer Cathedral, but the project brought him into conflict with the Protestant municipal authorities. He then decided to construct a new Residenz on the northern edge of Bruchsal, which had been part of the bishopric of Speyer since the 11th century. As war could be expected at any time in the area, the Residenz complex was to consist of individual buildings separated from one another and grouped around courtyards, an arrangement that would help to control the spread of fire. Plans were procured from Maximilian von Welsch, the architect of Damian Hugo’s uncle, Lothar Franz, Elector of Mainz. Von Welsch’s scheme for Schloss Bruchsal is lost, but his ability to arrange larger groups of buildings effectively on a site suggests that he devised the layout of free-standing buildings and interlocked axes. The tall, rectangular block of the palace was placed on an axis formed by a tree-lined avenue and gardens on one side and on the other by a symmetrical arrangement of buildings and a large courtyard that extended over the adjoining Bergstrasse (now Schönbornstrasse). The street was straddled by the Damian Gate at one end, and at the other it was bracketed by long rows of buildings. Work began first on the flanking blocks, to the designs of ...

Article

Christian F. Otto

[Augustusburg]

German Electoral castle, c. 8 km west of the Rhine, halfway between Bonn and Cologne. The medieval castle, a massive rectangular building containing a court and surrounded by a moat, was extensively destroyed by Louis XIV’s troops in 1689. Elector Joseph Clemens of Cologne decided to rebuild the ruin, and in 1715 his architectural adviser, the Parisian court architect Robert de Cotte, submitted plans for the project. No work had begun, however, when Joseph Clemens died in 1723. His nephew and successor, Clemens August, immediately took over the project, employing an experienced local architect, Johann Conrad Schlaun. In his scheme Schlaun incorporated much of the existing fabric. He duplicated the existing north-west tower with another in the south-west and retained the moat around the whole site, creating a C-shaped building that was open to the east. Construction of the two-storey elevation, set on a one-storey base and capped by a mansard roof, was complete by ...

Article

Charles Saumarez Smith

English country house in N. Yorks built (1701–24) by John Vanbrugh for Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle; the gardens were laid out by George London during the same period. One of the largest, grandest and, architecturally, most important country houses in England, Castle Howard was first planned in October 1698, when the 3rd Earl took out a lease for life on the ruinous Henderskelfe Castle (burnt 1693; destr. 1724) and its manor from his grandmother, Anne Howard, Countess of Carlisle. The following spring he consulted the architect William Talman, Comptroller of Works to William III, on the design for a house to replace the old castle of Henderskelfe, but during the summer Talman was supplanted by the playwright John Vanbrugh. Castle Howard was Vanbrugh’s first important architectural commission. A model in wood was shown to the King in the summer of 1700, and work on the hill-top site began in the spring of ...

Article

Hakon Lund

Danish castle c. 40 km north-west of Copenhagen. The summer residence of the Danish court, it was originally a hunting seat, built in 1719–22 for Frederick IV (reg 1699–1730) by Johann Cornelius Krieger. It comprised a corps-de-logis and an octagonal forecourt surrounded by single-storey buildings. The corps-de-logis, the nucleus of the layout, is a centralized building with a square hall in the middle, two storeys high and surmounted by a four-sided cupola. The plan of the building is derived from the Palladian villa type, but the shape of the cupola gives the exterior a French rather than Italian appearance. The central hall is undoubtedly inspired by a similar room in the Palazzo Albergati in Bologna, attributed to Baldassare Peruzzi, which Frederick visited twice. An unexecuted project (1708; Washington, DC, Lib. Congr.), which the King commissioned from Francesco Muttoni in Vicenza, could have been influential, despite its megalomaniac appearance, in the choice of the Palladian central plan and some of the stuccowork in the cupola room. It remains, however, an original design. Krieger also laid out the semicircular garden directly in front of the building....

Article

Mario Schwarz

Cistercian abbey in the Vienna Woods, Lower Austria. Heiligenkreuz, the oldest Cistercian abbey in the region once ruled by the house of Babenberg, was founded in 1135 by Margrave Leopold III of Austria (reg 1096–1136). It was settled with monks from Morimond Abbey in France, and a temporary building was consecrated in 1136. From the time of Leopold IV (reg 1136–41) Heiligenkreuz was the preferred burial place of the Babenbergs.

The nave of the church, begun before 1147 and consecrated in 1187, is an ashlar building, which at first had a flat ceiling. Excavations have shown that the original east end consisted of three apses without a transept. In 1147 Henry II (reg 1141–77) donated the village of Münchendorf and its revenues to the abbey, making it possible to vault the church, and a further endowment in 1156 enabled the monastic buildings to be rebuilt in stone. The five-bay aisled nave, the proportions of which are based on a module derived from the crossing square, has alternating supports. The aisles are groin-vaulted, but the main vessel has domical vaults with ribs of a plain, rectangular profile, the transverse arches resting on short pilasters corbelled above the arcade (...

Article

Hakon Lund

[formerly Abrahamstrup]

Castle and garden in north Zealand, Denmark, c. 50 km north-west of Copenhagen. The small castle, on a spur between Isefjord and Roskilde fjord, is partly medieval but dates mostly from the 16th and 18th centuries, the east wing having been built in 1730–32 by Johan Conrad Ernst (1666–1750). It is now a museum containing the furniture and collections of King Frederick VII (reg 1848–63) and his third wife, Countess Danner, who occupied it between 1854 and 1863. North and east of the castle is the memorial grove. In 1776 the heir presumptive to the Danish throne, Prince Frederick (1753–1805), excavated a Bronze Age tumulus, which he dedicated to his mother, the Dowager Queen Juliana Maria (1729–96). This was a time when there was an upsurge of interest in national history and origins, and the project was conceived of turning these ancient remains into a political monument to Denmark’s past. ...

Article

Anna Bentkowska

[Ger. Leubus

Former Cistercian abbey near Wrocław in Silesia, south-west Poland, one of the largest Baroque abbeys in central Europe (main complex: 223×118 m), situated south of Lubiąż village on the west bank of the Odra (Ger. Oder), surrounded by defence walls and moats, fields and woods. It was formerly also a centre of music. The abbey’s present imposing appearance is the result of a remodelling in 1681–1739. It was founded in 1163 as the first Cistercian abbey in Silesia by Boleslav I of Silesia (reg 1163–1201), who brought the Order from Pforta on Saal in Thuringia. The monks settled on the site, which c. 1150–63 had been occupied by Benedictines. The first Romanesque church is mentioned in a document of 1208, but the only element surviving from that building is a small column (c. 1230–40), originally a piscina, preserved in the choir. The capital is elaborately carved with bird and plant motifs and has traces of polychromy. In the late 13th century and the early 14th that church was replaced by the existing Gothic basilica with its rectangular ambulatory; a ducal burial chapel was added in ...

Article

Christian F. Otto

Benedictine abbey, 16 km from Nördlingen, in the Swabian Alps, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It was founded in 1095 by Graf Hartmann I von Dillingen. Its first church was built in the 12th century, but in 1695, to mark the 600th anniversary of the monastery, the façade and interior were remodelled in the Baroque style, although the tower, built in 1617–26 by Peter Schwarz (d 1626) in a Romanesque style, was left unaltered. At the same time new service buildings were constructed, and in 1699–1726 new monastic quarters, designed by Michael Weidemann, were built. The final phase of building was the construction of a new church. A site on the northern edge of the monastic complex was prepared in 1745, before an architect had been selected.

In 1747 the abbot Aurelius Braisch engaged Balthasar Neumann to design the church, having been impressed by his Benedictine monastery church of Münsterschwarzach, begun in ...

Article

D. O. Shvidkovsky

[Rus. Novo-Iyerusalimsky Monastyr’]

Russian monastery near Istra, c. 60 km west of Moscow. One of the largest monasteries in Russia, it was founded in 1656 by Nikon, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia (1652–66), as part of his attempt to reform the Russian Orthodox Church by restoring original Greek practices and architecture. To confirm his belief that true orthodoxy had survived only in Russia, he built in the centre of the monastery a replica (1658–85) of the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem based on drawings and a wooden model brought from Palestine. The result, known as the cathedral of the Resurrection, was a large rotunda enclosing numerous chapels and the replica, set at the west end of a domed, cross-plan church. A tall bell-tower adjoined the church’s south transept. The rotunda was covered with a stone tent-shaped roof, which collapsed in 1723 and was replaced by a wooden roof. This complex building, though unique in Russian architecture, reflected the mid-17th-century tendency towards the elaboration of architectural forms. The original decoration of white walls and coloured tiles was later replaced by stucco details; between ...

Article

Michael Symes

English landscape park near Cobham, Surrey. It was laid out by its owner the Hon. Charles Hamilton (b Dublin, 1704; d Bath, 1786) between 1738 and 1773. Having visited Rome in 1732, he claimed to have smuggled back to England a large antique statue of Bacchus (sold London, Christie’s, 23 Oct 1797, along with 12 marble busts of Roman emperors). In 1738 he began acquiring tracts of heath and woodland near Cobham in order to lay out a landscape garden, borrowing heavily to do so from a group of bankers that included Henry Hoare the younger, who was later responsible for the landscape garden at Stourhead, Wilts.

Hamilton’s park of over 80 ha was laid out on a strip of undulating land approximately 1.5 km in length, its southern side bounded by the meandering River Mole. Financial difficulties over the years led him to set up a series of commercial enterprises at Painshill, including a tile works and vineyard, but these were not sucessful. The first major undertaking to improve the landscape was the provision of a large lake, fed by a wheel that drew up water from the river below. Several of the small islands within the lake were connected by a sequence of bridges; on the edge of one island, probably with assistance from ...

Article

Maria Natália Correia Guedes

[Palácio Nacional de Queluz]

Residence near Lisbon, Portugal. The main construction began in 1746 under the direction of the Infante Dom Pedro of Braganza (1717–86), uncle and subsequently king-consort (as Peter III) to Mary I. It became the official royal residence from 10 November 1794 until 27 November 1807, when the Napoleonic invasion forced the royal family to depart for exile in Brazil. The building began as a hunting-lodge owned by the Marquês de Castelo Rodrigo, a diplomat and statesman to Philip II of Spain (I of Portugal). In 1654 the property was incorporated into the estate of the Portuguese royal Infante and was subsequently inherited by Dom Pedro in 1742. His scheme of enlargement was given impetus by a fire in 1751, which destroyed the Paço Corte Real in Lisbon.

The new central east wing (1746–58) and the chapel (1750–52) were designed by Mateus Vicente de Oliveira (for illustration ...

Article

Susan B. Taylor

French château near Paris, best known for its gardens, laid out between 1700 and 1789. The château was built and maintained by the d’Angennes family from the 14th to the 17th centuries. Catherine de Vivonne, Marquise de Rambouillet (1588–1665), was responsible for beginning the canal and water networks that were to influence later developments at Rambouillet. The definitive layout of the gardens was made under the financier and courtier Joseph-Jean Baptiste Fleuriau d’Armenonville (1661–1728). To accommodate the site surrounding the château, essentially a flat, swampy terrain, d’Armenonville constructed a canal of 740 m that permitted him to establish parterres close to the château: a geometrical quincunx was laid out to the west, and an avenue of cypress trees from Louisiana (unique in Europe) was planted to the east. A second, transverse, canal created a view towards the forest and the horizon. In the trapezoid formed by these canals were two islands, one of which housed a grotto dedicated to François Rabelais. A ...

Article

Rotunda  

Vaughan Hart

Name applied generally to a circular building, predominantly domed or vaulted (sometimes entitled ‘Pantheon’), or specifically to a series of villas of the Palladian type with a circular central space. Originating with circular Greek commemorative buildings, Roman temples, and Imperial mausolea, the rotunda form was used for a number of Early Christian churches and medieval baptisteries and became projected as an ideal form for Christian worship in the early Italian Renaissance (see Church, §I, 2). Thus canonized as a general paradigm of antique architecture, the rotunda was used for secular buildings requiring large central spaces such as villas, libraries, and Neo-classical state monuments. Examples can be found throughout Europe, in the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire and in the development of Palladian and Neo-classical architecture in Russia and the USA.

The rotunda form derives from the Tholos, a circular building used for commemorative purposes, such as that (...

Article

Stowe  

G. B. Clarke

[Stow]

English country house and garden, 4 km north-west of Buckingham, Bucks. Built c. 1680 for Sir Richard Temple (1634–97), both the house and garden were radically altered during the 18th century. The formal garden of Temple’s house, which had three descending compartments, was representative of the period, except that at the lowest level its unknown designer was forced to incorporate the garden of an earlier house that had been laid out on a different axis. Thus, from the outset, Stowe’s garden contained an element of asymmetry.

The chief creator of Stowe’s fame was Temple’s son Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham. From c. 1718, following a successful military career, he began to develop house and garden on a princely scale, engaging Sir John Vanbrugh as his architect and Charles Bridgeman as his garden designer. Bridgeman extended the existing garden into a geometric layout of over 50 acres in the French manner, with straight avenues, formal canals and a great parterre. Since the approach road to the house ran along the east side, he was unable to expand in that direction, and this led him—encouraged, no doubt, by Vanbrugh—to exploit the irregularity that had been imposed on the 17th-century designer, adopting it as a main feature and developing the layout lopsidedly to the west. Bridgeman’s other novel features were the extensive ha-ha and the inclusion of an unimproved area of pasture within the straight perimeter walks. Alexander Pope praised this layout in his ...

Article

Liisa Eerikäinen

[Swed. Sveaborg; Fin. Viapori until 1918]

Fortress in Finland, built on six islands off Helsinki. It was begun by Lieut.-Col. Augustin Ehrensvärd (1710–72) in 1748, when Finland was part of Sweden, and building continued during the Russian period (1809–1917). Suomenlinna is an irregular bastion fortress, built of granite and adapted to its island site. The buildings show some Rococo influence, the 19th-century barracks being eclectic in style. As a naval base, the functional centre of the fortress was the galley harbour, with its dry dock blasted into the seabed. The most notable of the castle courtyards was the Great Courtyard, a square closed on all sides, which narrowed to the east giving a false perspective. At its western end, there were two curved buildings, which formed an exedra motif. In the middle of the courtyard is the tomb of Augustin Ehrensväard. The Great Courtyard was partly destroyed in 1885, in bombings during the Crimean War....

Article

Christian F. Otto

Pilgrimage church overlooking the River Main, near Banz, Franconia, Germany ( see fig. ). The original chapel was built in 1457 on the site where, in the 1440s, a young shepherd had had visions of the 14 helper saints. According to medieval legend, the helper saints acted as intercessors in times of plague and epidemics. The chapel became an increasingly popular place of pilgrimage, and in 1735 the abbot Stephan Mösinger of the Cistercian monastery at Langheim proposed a larger and more imposing building. Projects were submitted several years later. Gottfried Heinrich Krohne’s plan of 1739 was for a centralized church extended by a small choir where the shrine was to be placed, an impractical design that would not have accommodated processions or provided enough space for visitors to view the shrine. Another proposal of 1737 by Johann Jakob Michael Küchel, who had worked under Balthasar Neumann at Bamberg, placed the shrine beneath a vast dome flanked by spacious transepts....