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Building for the commercial and usually mechanical production of goods. The modern factory was developed in the course of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, and its subsequent architectural development was linked to advances in technology. Previously, goods had been produced, usually by hand, in the home or in specialized workshops (‘manufactories’). Nevertheless, some early manufacturing premises were substantial in size, such as the glass works at Saint Gobain, France, which received its royal patent in 1695, where workers’ housing was built concurrently with the workshops. Another early example of large-scale premises was the Real Fábrica de Tabacos, Seville (1728–57. However, it was only during the Industrial Revolution, with increases in the use of machinery and in the scale of production, that the factory as a distinct building type came into existence.

Pioneered in England, the early textile (and especially cotton) mills of Derbyshire and Lancashire served as stylistic models for the rest of the world from the 18th century until the early 20th. The first such building was ...