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Article

J. J. Martín González

Spanish palace that stands beside the rivers Tagus and Jarama in the province of Madrid, 47 km south of the capital. It was intended as a spring and summer residence for the royal family and is renowned for its gardens and fountains. The summer residence built at Aranjuez in 1387 by Lorenzo Suárez de Figueroa, Grand Master of the Order of Santiago, became royal property under Ferdinand II, King of Aragon, and Isabella, Queen of Castile and León. In the reign of Charles V improvements were carried out by Luis de Vega (from c. 1537) and the palace was extensively enlarged by Philip II. The chapel was designed by Juan Bautista de Toledo and completed by Jerónimo Gili and Juan de Herrera. It was built in a combination of white stone from Colmenar de Oreja and brick, giving a two-toned effect that was adopted for the rest of the palace. In ...

Article

M. I. Andreyev

Estate situated 20 km west of Moscow. It was first recorded in 1537 as the village of Upolzy, and renamed Arkhangel’skoye after a brick church dedicated to the Archangel Michael was built in 1667 to replace a wooden one. From 1703 to 1810 the estate belonged to the princes Golitsyn and from 1810 to 1917 to the princes Yusupov, notably Yusupov family, §1. In 1919 it became a museum-estate.

One of the finest Russian palace and park ensembles, Arkhangel’skoye has as its nucleus a Neo-classical palace, connected to the two wings set in front of the main façade by powerful Tuscan colonnades. It was built by local serf craftsmen between 1780 and 1790 to a plan by the French architect Charles de Guerney. The strict symmetry of the palace’s architecture is underscored by the severe belvedere and central portico with four Ionic columns; on the opposite side, overlooking the park, the projection of an oval room, decorated with a pair of Ionic columns, echoes the portico. In ...

Article

A. G. Gertsen

[Turk. Baghče sarǎy: ‘Garden palace’]

Ukrainian city in the Crimea, 35 km north-east of Sevastopol, which was the capital of the Tatar in the Crimea throughout the rule of the Giray dynasty (c. 1423–1783). It developed from an important burial ground of the Giray khans, but the Garden Palace (1503–19), founded by Khan Mengli Giray I (reg 1466–1514 with interruptions) and covering over 4 ha in the valley of the River Churuk-Su, represents the historical core of the city. The earliest structure is the Demirkap (‘Iron gate’) with an inscription referring to Mengli Giray and the date 1503. It is thought to be by the Italian architect Aleviz Novy or Aloisio (fl early 16th century), builder of the cathedral of the Archangel Michael (wooden church, 1333; rebuilt 1505–8) in the Moscow Kremlin. Little is known of the layout of the palace in the 16th and 17th centuries as it was badly damaged by fire in ...

Article

Carola Hicks

English country house near Woodstock, Oxon, designed by John Vanbrugh for John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. It was begun in 1705 and completed c. 1725. The gardens, initially laid out by Vanbrugh and Henry Wise, were largely redesigned in 1764–74 by ‘Capability’ Brown. Blenheim Palace is regarded as one of the finest examples of English Baroque architecture. It was a gift to the Duke from a grateful Crown and nation to commemorate his victory in 1704 over the French and Bavarians at Blenheim (now Blindheim) during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). The intention was to create a public monument symbolizing the glory of Britain and a palace fit for a hero, rather than a building on a domestic scale. This is reflected in Vanbrugh’s dramatic and monumental design, inspired by both English and French architecture, which developed the style he had begun to formulate in his earlier work at Castle Howard, N. Yorks. In both undertakings he was assisted by ...

Article

Bomarzo  

Claudia Lazzaro

Sacro Bosco [Villa Orsini]

Italian estate below the hill town of Bomarzo, near Viterbo. The popular name derives from an inscription in the wood, which refers to it as a ‘sacro bosco’, an allusion to Arcadia (1504) by Jacopo Sannazaro. The Sacro Bosco, built for Pier Francesco (‘Vicino’) Orsini (d 1585) from c. 1552, was dedicated by him to his deceased wife, Giulia Farnese. Called a boschetto (little wood) by Orsini, the site is hilly with untouched terrain, although there are also level terraces and rectilinear enclosures. Much was done by 1564; sculpture was added during the 1570s, and work continued until Orsini’s death in January 1585.

The original planting plan is unknown, and since the rediscovery of the site in the 1940s much has been replanted. The stream may have been dammed to form a lake in the areas of the present entrance and the path lined with heads (moved there in the modern restoration). The original entrance was probably near the Leaning House, the former location of the sphinxes, as their inscriptions address the entering visitor. The hypothesis of a formal garden contemporary with the Sacro Bosco on the hillside above must be rejected without further evidence....

Article

Charles Saumarez Smith

English country house in N. Yorks built (1701–24) by John Vanbrugh for Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle; the gardens were laid out by George London during the same period. One of the largest, grandest and, architecturally, most important country houses in England, Castle Howard was first planned in October 1698, when the 3rd Earl took out a lease for life on the ruinous Henderskelfe Castle (burnt 1693; destr. 1724) and its manor from his grandmother, Anne Howard, Countess of Carlisle. The following spring he consulted the architect William Talman, Comptroller of Works to William III, on the design for a house to replace the old castle of Henderskelfe, but during the summer Talman was supplanted by the playwright John Vanbrugh. Castle Howard was Vanbrugh’s first important architectural commission. A model in wood was shown to the King in the summer of 1700, and work on the hill-top site began in the spring of ...

Article

Priscilla Boniface

[glasshouse]

Building for the protection, propagation and cultivation of plants. Greenhouses, probably roofed in mica, existed in Roman times. During the 16th century, the beginnings of the application of science to plant-growing, which led to the development of the Botanic garden in Europe, encouraged the construction of greenhouses. In ‘houses’ formed of a ‘hot bed’ of such heat-generating substances as bark or dung, situated against a south wall and ‘roofed’ with straw, canvas matting or individual glass cones, tender plants could be encouraged to survive and prosper. Such ‘houses’ gradually became more substantial, with brick or masonry sides, and eventually incorporated small panes of expensive glass. One of the most dramatic uses of portable glass coverings for plants was at Sanssouci (see Potsdam §2), where from 1773 the vineyard terrace (1747; by Georg Wenceslaus von Knobelsdorff), which was also used for growing pomegranate and orange trees, was covered in glass in cold weather. The greenhouse was introduced on the east coast of ...

Article

Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

Castle in Salzburg, Austria. To the south of Salzburg, Archbishop Marcus Sitticus von Hohenems (reg 1612–19) commissioned Santino Solari to build a small castle to be used as a summer palace. Schloss Hellbrunn (1613–19) is a most perfect realization of the Italian villa suburbana and the earliest of its kind north of the Alps. Situated at the end of a long avenue, the building is a cube of classic simplicity, with a bifurcate staircase opening on to a cour d’honneur. The most remarkable interior features are the Festsaal (banqueting hall), set asymmetrically on the west side, and its projecting octagon, with frescoes by Arsenio Mascagni (1579–1636). Hellbrunn’s main attraction, however, is its gardens. The Lustgarten or Pleasure Garden was laid out north of the castle and furnished with an unusual variety of grottoes, fountains, ponds and other features including the Roman Theatre, a miniature exedra dominated by a statue of ...

Article

Hakon Lund

[formerly Abrahamstrup]

Castle and garden in north Zealand, Denmark, c. 50 km north-west of Copenhagen. The small castle, on a spur between Isefjord and Roskilde fjord, is partly medieval but dates mostly from the 16th and 18th centuries, the east wing having been built in 1730–32 by Johan Conrad Ernst (1666–1750). It is now a museum containing the furniture and collections of King Frederick VII (reg 1848–63) and his third wife, Countess Danner, who occupied it between 1854 and 1863. North and east of the castle is the memorial grove. In 1776 the heir presumptive to the Danish throne, Prince Frederick (1753–1805), excavated a Bronze Age tumulus, which he dedicated to his mother, the Dowager Queen Juliana Maria (1729–96). This was a time when there was an upsurge of interest in national history and origins, and the project was conceived of turning these ancient remains into a political monument to Denmark’s past. ...

Article

Muskau  

Reinhard Zimmermann

Landscape garden set out between 1815 and 1845 by Hermann von Pückler-Muskau on his estate at Muskau, near Cottbus. The River Neisse, which runs through the park, became part of the German–Polish border in 1945; about two-thirds of its total area (545 ha) lies in Poland and a third in Germany. One of the last great creations of the mature style of German landscape gardening, it surrounds the town of Muskau and its Schloss, rising to a moderate height on both sides of the Neisse Valley, in varied scenery with mixed gradients. At the centre, in an oval area between a bend of the river and the town, lies the Schlosspark, which is continued in the Bergpark, beyond the town to the west. The larger part of the park, including the Oberpark, a broad strip along the river, and the Arboretum, further off on high ground, lies to the east, on the Polish side of the Neisse. Pückler’s basic notion for the park was to restore a Utopian ideal: he wanted to display the life of his family (i.e. of the aristocracy) in a romanticized and aesthetically idealized setting, at a time when the middle classes were gaining increasing power. The park should therefore be seen to represent a microcosm of a hierarchical, patriarchal society: a sham castle (unexecuted) on the eastern hills was intended to be the spatial and historical opposite of the industrial landscape incorporating an alum mine in the western Bergpark. Immediately surrounding the palace are pleasure gardens, which include flower gardens, a winter garden, greenhouses and vegetable gardens. Pückler’s treatment of the park boundary is conservative: it is designed not to open the gardens to their surroundings but to isolate the ideal society within from the outside world. The boundary was, in the main, marked by an impenetrable wall of densely planted bushes and trees. However, in ...

Article

Priscilla Boniface

Building for the protection of tender plants, particularly orange trees, in cold weather. By the 18th century the interpretation of the name and function had gradually expanded to include any ‘house’ the purpose of which was to contain plants for display (see also Conservatory). Orangeries were frequently used for promenades. The orange tree was being grown in mainland Europe by the end of the 15th century and in Britain by the end of the 16th century. The first purpose-built orangeries evolved from temporary structures and from garden houses, which were requisitioned to contain orange trees and other tender plants. In cold weather coverings could be manoeuvred over orange trees that were planted outside, but, if they were grown in pots, they were moved to the protective rooms. During the ‘closed season’, in either case, protective wooden shutters allowed some light and air to reach the plants. The temporary Orangery at ...

Article

Michael Symes

English landscape park near Cobham, Surrey. It was laid out by its owner the Hon. Charles Hamilton (b Dublin, 1704; d Bath, 1786) between 1738 and 1773. Having visited Rome in 1732, he claimed to have smuggled back to England a large antique statue of Bacchus (sold London, Christie’s, 23 Oct 1797, along with 12 marble busts of Roman emperors). In 1738 he began acquiring tracts of heath and woodland near Cobham in order to lay out a landscape garden, borrowing heavily to do so from a group of bankers that included Henry Hoare the younger, who was later responsible for the landscape garden at Stourhead, Wilts.

Hamilton’s park of over 80 ha was laid out on a strip of undulating land approximately 1.5 km in length, its southern side bounded by the meandering River Mole. Financial difficulties over the years led him to set up a series of commercial enterprises at Painshill, including a tile works and vineyard, but these were not sucessful. The first major undertaking to improve the landscape was the provision of a large lake, fed by a wheel that drew up water from the river below. Several of the small islands within the lake were connected by a sequence of bridges; on the edge of one island, probably with assistance from ...

Article

Maria Natália Correia Guedes

[Palácio Nacional de Queluz]

Residence near Lisbon, Portugal. The main construction began in 1746 under the direction of the Infante Dom Pedro of Braganza (1717–86), uncle and subsequently king-consort (as Peter III) to Mary I. It became the official royal residence from 10 November 1794 until 27 November 1807, when the Napoleonic invasion forced the royal family to depart for exile in Brazil. The building began as a hunting-lodge owned by the Marquês de Castelo Rodrigo, a diplomat and statesman to Philip II of Spain (I of Portugal). In 1654 the property was incorporated into the estate of the Portuguese royal Infante and was subsequently inherited by Dom Pedro in 1742. His scheme of enlargement was given impetus by a fire in 1751, which destroyed the Paço Corte Real in Lisbon.

The new central east wing (1746–58) and the chapel (1750–52) were designed by Mateus Vicente de Oliveira (for illustration ...

Article

Susan B. Taylor

French château near Paris, best known for its gardens, laid out between 1700 and 1789. The château was built and maintained by the d’Angennes family from the 14th to the 17th centuries. Catherine de Vivonne, Marquise de Rambouillet (1588–1665), was responsible for beginning the canal and water networks that were to influence later developments at Rambouillet. The definitive layout of the gardens was made under the financier and courtier Joseph-Jean Baptiste Fleuriau d’Armenonville (1661–1728). To accommodate the site surrounding the château, essentially a flat, swampy terrain, d’Armenonville constructed a canal of 740 m that permitted him to establish parterres close to the château: a geometrical quincunx was laid out to the west, and an avenue of cypress trees from Louisiana (unique in Europe) was planted to the east. A second, transverse, canal created a view towards the forest and the horizon. In the trapezoid formed by these canals were two islands, one of which housed a grotto dedicated to François Rabelais. A ...

Article

Rueil  

Susan B. Taylor

French garden near Malmaison, Hauts-de-Seine. It was laid out between 1633 and 1642 for Armand-Jean du Plessis, Cardinal de Richelieu, by the architect Jacques Le Mercier with the assistance of Thomas Francini (1571–1651). Rueil marked the introduction of the monumental architectural style of the Italian garden into France, and its Grande Cascade became an inspiration for cascades at Sceaux, Marly-le-Roi and Saint-Cloud.

The site at Rueil was a shallow valley in hilly terrain. A garden had been laid out there earlier by Jean Moisset (d 1620), known as Montaubon, but after he acquired the château (destr. 1817) and surrounding property in 1633 Richelieu made substantial alterations and improvements. The principal feature in the new garden was the Grande Allée (over 800 m long), which ran the length of the estate on a north–south axis. At its southern end the Grande Cascade (destr.) was constructed, modelled on Italian architectural waterfalls such as those found at the Villa Lante, Bagnaia, the Villa d’Este, Tivoli, and in the gardens of several villas at Frascati. Three fountains at its summit threw forth water which spilt into a succession of vases descending the broad steps of the cascade and culminated in a circular basin. At the northern end of the Allée was the Grand Escalier (destr.), a balustraded flight of steps decorated with statues. Beyond it were small cypress groves next to orchards, and the Allée terminated at the Grotte de Rocaille (destr.). This consisted of a central niche encrusted with stalactites, flanked by coupled Doric columns. The niche formed the yawning mouth of a grimacing mask, made in emulation of the Italian Mannerist ‘Gate of Hell’ portals, as found, for example, fronting grottoes at the Villa Aldobrandini, Frascati, and Bomarzo, near Viterbo....

Article

Dutch 17th-century palace and gardens at Soest in the province of Utrecht. The estate was bought by William III (see Orange Nassau, House of family §(5)) in 1674, partly to re-establish his presence in the province of Utrecht after its surrender in 1672 during the war with France. The house was rebuilt to designs by Maurits Post (1674–8; see Post §(3)) in the sober Dutch classicist style, with a balcony above the main entrance; Gérard de Lairesse and Melchior d’Hondecoeter were among the artists employed to decorate the interior. From 1681 a garden of simple design was laid out with long avenues creating extensive vistas. To the north and south were parterres de broderie decorated with statues, and the northern garden had two fountains designed by Willem Meester. In 1689 Bastiaen Stopendael (1637–93) executed an engraving after a coloured etching of the estate by ...

Article

Stowe  

G. B. Clarke

[Stow]

English country house and garden, 4 km north-west of Buckingham, Bucks. Built c. 1680 for Sir Richard Temple (1634–97), both the house and garden were radically altered during the 18th century. The formal garden of Temple’s house, which had three descending compartments, was representative of the period, except that at the lowest level its unknown designer was forced to incorporate the garden of an earlier house that had been laid out on a different axis. Thus, from the outset, Stowe’s garden contained an element of asymmetry.

The chief creator of Stowe’s fame was Temple’s son Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham. From c. 1718, following a successful military career, he began to develop house and garden on a princely scale, engaging Sir John Vanbrugh as his architect and Charles Bridgeman as his garden designer. Bridgeman extended the existing garden into a geometric layout of over 50 acres in the French manner, with straight avenues, formal canals and a great parterre. Since the approach road to the house ran along the east side, he was unable to expand in that direction, and this led him—encouraged, no doubt, by Vanbrugh—to exploit the irregularity that had been imposed on the 17th-century designer, adopting it as a main feature and developing the layout lopsidedly to the west. Bridgeman’s other novel features were the extensive ha-ha and the inclusion of an unimproved area of pasture within the straight perimeter walks. Alexander Pope praised this layout in his ...

Article

David R. Coffin

(Tivoli)

Villa on the edge of the town of Tivoli, famous for its fine gardens with their spectacular fountains and waterworks. In 1550 Ippolito II d’Este, Cardinal of Ferrara, was appointed governor of Tivoli. He decided to transform the governor’s residence located in a portion of an old run-down Benedictine monastery attached to S Maria Maggiore into a lavish villa with splendid gardens devised by Pirro Ligorio. Although some gardens and vineyards were purchased below the monastery at this time, little was accomplished on the project for the next decade as the Cardinal was diverted by political affairs. The villa itself is, in architectural terms, somewhat plain. Ligorio did, however, execute a fine staircase loggia on the garden front. This is bordered on either side by ranges of private rooms, which are largely frescoed with such works as an Allegory of Nature by the school of Federico Zuccaro and the Labours of Hercules...