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Martha C. Nussbaum

Philosophical school of ancient Greece and Rome. It was among the most influential movements of antiquity and because of its centrality in later European education, especially in the 16th–19th centuries, it exercised a profound influence on the views of virtue, mind and emotion held by many thinkers and artists. The school was named after the porch (stoa) in Athens where it met under Zeno of Citium (335–263 bc), Cleanthes (331–232 bc) and Chrysippus (280–207 bc), all of whose works survive only in fragments. Modifications of doctrine were introduced by Panaetius (185–109 bc) and Posidonius (135–50 bc). At Rome, Stoicism became the creed of many political, artistic and intellectual leaders. The most important Roman Stoic philosophers were Seneca (c. 4 bcad 65), Epictetus (c. ad 55–c. 135) and the emperor Marcus Aurelius (...