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Article

M. N. Sokolov

(Konstantinovich)

(b Feodosiya [now Kaffa], July 29, 1817; d Feodosiya, June 2, 1900).

Russian painter of Armenian descent. The son of an Armenian merchant, throughout his life he kept his links with the ancient traditions of Armenian Christian culture. He studied at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, in 1833–7 under Maksim Vorob’yov (1787–1855), a prominent Russian landscape painter of the Romantic period. From 1845 Ayvazovsky worked predominantly in Feodosiya, an ancient city in the Eastern Crimea. He travelled widely in Russia and Europe, the Near East, Africa and America. Ayvazovsky’s first significant paintings testify to his attentive assimilation of the canons of Romantic seascape painting, going back to Claude Lorrain, as well as the influence of Vorob’yov and the late works of Sil’vestr Shchedrin. In Ayvazovsky’s early works the accurate rendering of views is combined with a classicist rationality of composition, as in View of the Seashore in the Environs of St Petersburg (1835; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.)

A purely Romantic view of the world and exaltation in the face of the boundless, eternally changing sea find mature expression in the works of the 1840s, when Ayvazovsky gained renown throughout Europe. A number of foreign academies made him an honorary member, and J. M. W. Turner wrote an enthusiastic ode in honour of one of his pictures. The best-known work of this period is the ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 26 March 1809, in Kentish Town, London; died 13 September 1854, at sea, between Malta and Marseilles.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman, writer. Genre scenes, landscapes with figures, landscapes, topographical views.

Orientalism.

William Henry Bartlett is thought to have exhibited at the Royal Academy ...

Article

Briony Llewellyn

(b London, March 26, 1809; d at sea, off Malta, Sept 13, 1854).

English draughtsman , active also in the Near East, Continental Europe and North America. He was a prolific artist and an intrepid traveller. His work became widely known through numerous engravings after his drawings published in his own and other writers’ topographical books. His primary concern was to extract the picturesque aspects of a place and by means of established pictorial conventions to render ‘lively impressions of actual sights’, as he wrote in the preface to The Nile Boat (London, 1849).

During his apprenticeship to John Britton between 1822 and 1829, Bartlett travelled widely in Great Britain and contributed illustrations to several of his master’s antiquarian works. The popularity of travel books in the 1830s and early 1840s provided Bartlett with several commissions. He illustrated John Carne’s Syria, the Holy Land, Asia Minor &c (London, 1836–8), William Beattie’s Switzerland Illustrated (London, 1836) and The Waldenses (London, 1838), Julia Pardoe’s ...

Article

Marc Jordan

(b London, April 1, 1794; d Ely, Oct 16, 1845).

English architect. He was born into a wealthy and cultured family related to the Disraelis and the Ricardos, and he trained in John Soane’s office (1810–16), receiving what was then probably the best architectural education available in England, as in his watercolour of the staircase of Gower House, London (1813; London, Soane Mus.; see Chambers, william, fig.). In 1816 he began a tour of Italy and Greece, which was recorded in letters to his family (untraced; typescript London, Soane Mus.) and in drawings and sketches (London, Soane Mus.; see Jordan). After travelling via Paris to Turin, Florence, Rome, Venice and Vicenza, a meeting with C. R. Cockerell in Rome (1817) persuaded him to visit Greece; during 1818 he went via Naples to Thessaly, Constantinople and Athens, returning to Rome via Sicily.

In June 1819 Basevi was back in London at a moment when building activity was expanding after the depressed years immediately following the end of the Napoleonic Wars. His earliest commissions were minor alteration works for family friends or business acquaintances. In ...

Article

Italo Zannier

British photographers of Italian origin. Antonio Beato (b ?the Veneto, c. 1830; d Luxor, 1903) and his brother Felice [Felix] Beato (b ?the Veneto, c. 1830; d Mandalay, after 1904) were for many years thought to be one person with two names, Antonio and Felice, and only recently has the mystery been solved of the almost contemporaneous presence of a Beato in two different (and often very distant) places. The misunderstanding arose from the fact that both their names (Antonio Felice Beato) appear on several photographs. A closer inquiry brought to light a letter written by Antonio and published in the French paper, Moniteur de la photographie (1 June 1886), in which he explains that he is not the producer of the exotic photographs recently exhibited in London, mention of which had been made in the Moniteur of 10 March; the photographer was instead ‘[his] brother Monsieur Felice Beato of Japan’....

Article

Martha Schwendener

[Ben Youseph Nathan, Esther Zeghdda]

(b London, Nov 21, 1869; d Brooklyn, NY, Nov 27, 1933).

American photographer. Born Esther Zeghdda Ben Youseph Nathan to a German mother and an Algerian father, she immigrated to the United States in 1895. She worked as a milliner in New York before opening a photographic portrait studio in 1897. Her ‘gallery of illustrious Americans’ featured actresses, politicians, and fashionable socialites, including President Theodore Roosevelt, author Edith Wharton, artist William Merritt Chase, and actress Julia Marlowe. Ben-Yusuf also created Pictorialist-inspired artwork like The Odor of Pomegranates (1899; see fig.), an allegory informed by the myth of Persephone and the idea of the pomegranate as a tantalizing but odourless fruit. Ben-Yusuf was included in an exhibition organized by the Linked Ring, Brotherhood of the in London in 1896 and continued to exhibit in the group’s annual exhibitions until 1902. Her photographs were exhibited at the National Academy of Design in 1898 and at the Camera Club of New York in ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 11 September 1819, in Étampes (Essonne); died 20 September 1891, in Asnières (Hauts-de-Seine).

Painter, lithographer. Landscapes with figures, still-lifes.

Orientalism.

A pupil of Rémon at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Gave up his studies in 1841 after competing unsuccessfully for the Prix de Rome. Nevertheless, he exhibited for the first time at the Salon of 1843, where he was well received by the public. His work found sufficient favour with his artist peers that the journal ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 7 October 1797, in Paris; died 14 September 1871, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman. Religious subjects, landscapes, landscapes with figures, architectural views. Stage sets, church decoration.

Barbizon School.

A pupil of Bidauld, Ingres and Girodet-Trioson at the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, François Bertin exhibited at the salon quite regularly from 1827 to 1853. He was the son of the founder of the ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 27 November 1821, in Paris, to English parents; died 14 May 1906, in Oakland Battle, USA.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman. Landscapes.

Brabazon studied briefly under James D'Egville and Alfred Downing Fripp but was largely self-taught. He travelled to Spain, Italy, Egypt, the Indies and France, bringing back many landscapes in watercolour. He also made many copies of the masters during his travels. He became a member of the New English Art Club in 1891. He exhibited his work in London, particularly from 1865 until 1870....

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 13 May 1867, in Bruges, Belgium, to English parents; died 11 June 1956, in Ditchling.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Religious subjects, figure compositions, figures, local scenes (carnival), rustic scenes, urban landscapes, architectural views, urban views, harbour scenes, seascapes...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(d 1896).

French glass-maker. In the 1850s Brocard began to study the Islamic tradition of glass-making and to experiment with Islamic decorative techniques, such as staining and enamelling. He made reproduction 14th- and 15th-century Syrian glass which he first exhibited at the 1867 Exposition Universelle. Brocard could not read Arabic, but nonetheless used Arabic calligraphy to decorate his glassware; he sold to Europeans to whom the numerous errors in the Arabic were not apparent. Some of his best-known designs were based on mosque lamps in the Musée de Cluny, Paris....

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 7 February 1872, in Uxbridge (Middlesex); died 17 June 1952, in Melbourne.

Painter. Genre scenes, landscapes, flowers.

Ethel Carrick trained with Francis Bate and at the Slade School of Fine Art under Frederick Brown and Henry Tonks. She married the Australian painter Emanuel Phillips Fox in 1905 and together they settled in Paris. She was a member of the Salon d'Automne and exhibited there from the time of its foundation. She also exhibited at the Salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and the Salon des Indépendants. She was a member of the Union Internationale des Beaux-Arts et des Lettres, a sociétaire of the Salon d'Automne from 1911, and the vice-president of the International Union of Women Painters until 1913. At the outbreak of World War I, the Fox's returned to Australia. Following her husband's death in 1915, Carrick-Fox travelled extensively in Europe, the Middle East and Asia with regular trips to Australia where she continued to exhibit her work....

Article

Joshua Drapkin

(b Azay-le-Ferron, Indre, June 3, 1756; d Versailles, Nov 1, 1827).

French draughtsman, engraver, sculptor and archaeologist. He received instruction in drawing from Joseph-Marie Vien, Jean-Jacques Lagrenée and Jean-Baptiste Le Prince. In 1778 he departed for Italy, where he developed his landscape draughtsmanship and his passion for antiquity. He travelled incessantly, recording everything he saw and venturing out from Rome to Venice, Naples and Sicily. An example of the numerous drawings he produced is the Ruins of the Baths of Titus Seen from the Colosseum (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). In 1782 a group of amateurs, under the patronage of Emperor Joseph II, commissioned from him a series of views of the Istrian and Dalmatian coast; these were eventually published in J. Lavallée’s Voyage pittoresque et historique de l’Istrie et de la Dalmatie. After a brief spell in France, Cassas followed Marie-Gabriel, Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier, to his new ambassadorial post in Constantinople in 1784. He subsequently visited Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Cyprus and Asia Minor, recording his impressions of Alexandria, Cairo, Smyrna, the Temple of Diana (Artemis) at Ephesos and the Palmyra and Baalbek ruins. Many of the 250 drawings dating from this trip were of hitherto unrecorded sights. With Choiseul’s assistance Cassas published these works in the ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 30 July 1813, in Chézy (Allier); died 1886.

Painter. Figures, genre scenes, local scenes, landscapes.

Orientalism.

He was a pupil of Ingres, Marilhat and Hersent, and was a regular exhibitor at the Salons from 1835 to 1857; he was awarded the medal of the Société des Artistes in ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 8 April 1850, in Paris; died 14 December 1933, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman. Mythological subjects, portraits, landscapes, landscapes with figures.

Christol studied drawing while working in an architectural practice in 1866. In 1872 he qualified as a teacher of drawing at public schools run by the City of Paris. In ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 24 October 1868, in London; died 9 February 1909, in Virginia Water (Surrey).

Painter, draughtsman, decorative designer. Genre scenes, landscapes.

Charles Conder went to Australia when he was 15 years old. He began his career by producing humorous illustrations for the ...

Article

Barry Bergdoll

(b Marseille, Nov 26, 1787; d Marseille, Feb 8, 1879).

French architect and writer. The designer of many of the principal public buildings of Marseille, he also published the first accurate records of the Islamic monuments of Cairo, North Africa and the Middle East—a central interest of mid-19th-century architectural theorists and ornamentalists.

After studying both engineering and drawing in Marseille, Coste began his career in 1804 as site inspector and draughtsman for the Neo-classicist Michel-Robert Penchaud, a municipal and departmental architect, for whom he worked for a decade. In 1814, on the recommendation of the architects Percier & Fontaine, he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and the ateliers of Antoine-Laurent-Thomas Vaudoyer and Jean-Baptiste Labadye (1777–1850). An encounter in Paris with the geographer Jombert, who had been a member of the scientific mission that accompanied Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt in 1798, was to influence his subsequent career. In 1817 Jombert recommended Coste to Muhammad ‛Ali, Khedive of Egypt (...

Article

Andrew W. Moore

(b London, June 6, 1804; d Adalia [now Antalya], Turkey, Sept 24, 1842).

English painter and etcher. In the early 1820s he rapidly developed his skills as an etcher. Three prints, Near Norwich, Whitlingham Staithe and Bure Bridge (all 1827), demonstrate his developed sensitivity of line. His watercolour study for Bure Bridge, Aylsham (1826; Norwich, Castle Mus.) testifies to his fluid use of wash freely applied over light pencil. Daniell also began to paint in oils and received a few lessons from John Linnell in 1828, the year he graduated at Oxford. In 1829 he began the first of his continental tours, returning late 1830. His etchings developed a freedom of line that moved away from the example of his friend and teacher, Joseph Stannard of Norwich, towards that of Andrew Geddes and the Scottish etchers, whose work he probably saw while in Scotland in the summer of 1831. He exhibited once with the Norwich Society in 1832. Daniell’s later etchings, ...

Article

Donald A. Rosenthal

(b Bordeaux, July 16, 1804; d Paris, Feb 18, 1868).

French painter, illustrator and writer. His early training was as a theatrical scene painter and a designer of lithographic illustrations. In Bordeaux he studied with Pierre Lacour (ii) (1778–1859) and worked with Thomas Olivier (1772–1839), chief scene designer at the Grand-Théâtre. He subsequently studied in Paris in the studio of the landscape and history painter Julien-Michel Gué (1789–1843) and worked for the decorators of the Théâtre Italien.

From 1827 Dauzats provided lithographic designs for Isidore-Justin-Séverin Taylor’s series Voyages pittoresques et romantiques dans l’ancienne France (1820–78). He travelled in the French provinces, particularly Champagne, Dauphiné and Languedoc, often sketching the medieval monuments that had come into vogue during the Romantic period.

Dauzats also collaborated on lithographs for many other publications, including Taylor’s Voyage en Orient. For this last project Dauzats travelled to Egypt, Syria, Palestine and Turkey in 1830, a trip that he described in his book ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1862, in Rheims; died 1943.

Painter, pastellist, engraver (etching). Figures, portraits, landscapes, village views, architectural views, seascapes.

From 1886 to 1891, Henri Delavallée regularly visited Pont-Aven in Brittany where he met Gauguin, Émile Bernard and Seguin. In Paris, where he had a studio, he also met with other artists of the Pont-Aven school. In 1891 he left for the Middle East and settled in Istanbul, remaining there for ten years before returning to Brittany. Delavallée painted Breton landscapes in a pointillist style, sunburnt Turkish landscapes and portraits of the Grand Vizir and members of his court in solidly structured compositions....