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(b Holywood, County Down, Ireland, Jan 26, 1922).

Australian painter, printmaker, book designer, lecturer, collector, gallery director and publisher of limited edition artists’ books, of Irish decent. He worked as a draughtsman before entering war service in the British Admiralty from 1940 to 1949, including five years in Colombo, where he made sketching trips to jungle temples with the Buddhist monk and artist Manjsiro Thero. Between 1949 and 1951 Adams worked as an exhibition designer in London and studied wood-engraving with Gertrude Hermes in her evening class at the Central School of Arts and Crafts (now Central St Martin’s College of Art and Design). In 1951, after moving to Melbourne, Adams began a 30-year teaching commitment at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), where he instructed many of the younger generation of Australian printmakers, including George Baldessin and Jan Senbergs. A brief return to Britain and Ireland in 1957–8 provided experience with Dolmen Press, Dublin, which published his first book of engravings, ...


Luisa Morozzi


(b London, Feb 18, 1864; d Florence, April 14, 1916).

English collector, art historian, designer and architect. He joined the architectural practice of A(rthur) H(eygate) Mackmurdo as an associate in 1883 and was a partner from 1885 to 1890. Together they were leading members of the Century Guild of Artists (c. 1883–92). At this time he developed his skills as a graphic artist, creating designs for textiles, furniture and objects (e.g. London, William Morris Gal.), as well as decorative initial letters and elegant foliar and zoomorphic motifs that appeared in the Century Guild Hobby Horse magazine. The Horne–Mackmurdo partnership produced plans for Brewhouse Yard at Eton College and also for a series of houses in Uxbridge Road, London (both unexecuted). In 1889 Mrs Russell Gurney commissioned Horne to design the Chapel of the Ascension in Bayswater Road, London, decorated by Frederic Shields (destr. World War II).

The turning-point in Horne’s life and artistic development came when he was commissioned by the London publisher George Bell to write a monograph on Botticelli; for this reason he began making sporadic visits to Florence in ...


Franz Schulze


(b Cleveland, OH, July 8, 1906; d New Canaan, CT, Jan 25, 2005).

American architect, critic, and collector. The son of a well-to-do lawyer, he early displayed a keen natural intelligence that was diligently cultivated by his mother. He enrolled as an undergraduate at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, in 1923. A restless nature drew him successively to disciplines as diverse as music, the classics, and philosophy, while emotional turmoil led to several breakdowns that delayed his graduation until 1930. By then, however, he had developed a close friendship with the young art historian Alfred H. Barr jr, who in 1929 assumed the directorship of the new Museum of Modern Art in New York. At about the same time Johnson met another art historian, Henry-Russell Hitchcock, whose article on J(acobus) J(ohannes) P(ieter) Oud (‘The Architectural Work of J. J. P. Oud’, The Arts, xiii/2 (Feb 1928), pp. 97–103) had suddenly focused Johnson’s scattered mental energies on architecture and, more specifically, on modern European architecture of the 1920s....


S. J. Vernoit

(b 1879; d Sept 20, 1967).

Swedish collector and art historian. After graduating as a civil engineer in 1904 from the Royal College of Engineering in Stockholm, he travelled to China in 1906, where he worked first as a superintendent of reinforced concrete construction and then, from 1908, as a section engineer for the Tientsin–Pukow (Tianjin–Pukou) Railway Company. As objects of art were frequently discovered during the construction of railways, Karlbeck soon became interested in Chinese archaeology and art and formed an important collection of early Chinese bronzes. When the Swedish Crown Prince, later King Gustav VI Adolf, who was himself a collector and connoisseur of Chinese art, visited Pukow in 1926, he was greatly impressed by the collection, which was purchased and brought to Sweden. This began Karlbeck’s new career as a buyer of Chinese art for museums and private collectors. In 1927 he gave up his railway work because of political disturbances in China and returned to Sweden. The following year, however, he returned to China to acquire Chinese art objects. The visit was so successful that he made a further three journeys to China on behalf of museums and private collectors. The objects he acquired included a large number of bronzes of the Shang (...


Karolina Lanckorońska

[Karl Anton Leo Ludwig]

(b Vienna, Nov 4, 1848; d Vienna, July 15, 1933).

Polish archaeologist, writer, collector and patron, active in Austria. As an archaeologist his main interest lay in the architectural ruins of the late Roman Empire in Anatolia. In 1884 he organized an expedition of which he later published an account, Stadt Pamphyliens und Pisidiens. Sketches made by Jacek Malczewski (e.g. Warsaw, Royal Castle; mainly watercolours) are also records of the expedition. Lanckoroński and Malczewski later toured Italy and travelled to Munich together. Other artists patronized by Lanckoroński included Antoni Madeyski (1862–1939), Henryk Rodakowski and Hans Makart. During 1888 and 1889 Lanckoroński made a round-the-world voyage and subsequently published a diary of this trip, entitled Rund um die Erde. He brought back to Vienna various works of art, mainly sculptures and textiles. Between 1890 and 1895 a Baroque Revival palace was built for him in Vienna to designs by Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Hellmer (1849–1919). In it Lanckoroński installed paintings, mainly Dutch and French, that he had inherited and Italian paintings he had purchased (e.g. Masaccio’s ...


Mària van Berge-Gerbaud

[Frederik] (Johannes)

(b Amsterdam, May 4, 1884; d Paris, July 15, 1970).

Dutch collector, connoisseur and art historian. He was the son of Frederik Johannes Lugt, an engineer, and Jeanette Petronella Verschuur, who was related to the horse painter Wouterus Verschuur. By the age of eight, Frits had compiled a catalogue of his ‘rarities’ (including a shell collection) entitled Museum Lugtius. He attended Hendrik de Keyser’s drawing school in Amsterdam and, from the age of ten, regularly visited the Rijksmuseum, especially the museum’s print room, where, owing to the lack of a printed catalogue of the Dutch drawings, he began to describe the sheets himself (by late 1899 he had completed 955 entries, with biographies, and had reached Jordaens). At the time of the 1898 Rembrandt exhibition, he produced an illustrated biography of the artist; the manuscript was seen by the director of the Amsterdam auction-house Frederik Muller for whom Lugt went to work after a visit to London in 1901, when he learnt about English museums and art dealers. Between ...


Catherine Cooke


(b St Petersburg, Dec 21, 1889; d Moscow, 1942).

Russian politician, patron, urban planner and theorist. He was the son of a St Petersburg fishmonger who lacked the means to give him a full-time higher education. Working as a carpenter, he entered part-time architectural classes in the Volnyyi (open) Polytechnic, St Petersburg, where in 1908 he joined the Russian Social Democratic Party. By the February Revolution of 1917 he had been elected to the Petrograd Workers Soviet and commanded a Red Guard platoon; and in the October Revolution he took part in the storming of the Winter Palace. In the post-Revolutionary years he was a close colleague of Lenin, occupying a series of high-ranking positions, including commissariats for various aspects of labour affairs, People’s Commissar for Social Welfare (1922–4) and from 1924 to 1929 People’s Commissar of Finance for the Russian Republic (Rus. Narkomfin). Throughout the 1920s he was also a member of the Bolshevik Party Central Committee....


Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...


Helen Davies

(b Nottingham, Dec 16, 1824; d Swanage, April 10, 1913).

English museum curator, collector and connoisseur. He began studies in architecture but then turned to painting, working in the 1840s in the studio of Michel-Martin Drolling in Paris, among others. During this time he laid the foundations of his vast knowledge of Western art. On his return to England in 1847 he taught at the School of Design at Hanley and in 1852 was called to London to become a teachers’ training master. His curatorial abilities were noticed, and in the same year he was made Keeper of the new Museum of Ornamental Art at Marlborough House (transferred to South Kensington in 1857 and later named the Victoria and Albert Museum).

He was chiefly responsible for all the important acquisitions made for the museum between 1852 and 1867, excluding those of contemporary art. He built up all the collections, including those of ceramics, metalwork, manuscripts and drawings, but particularly that of Italian Renaissance sculpture, for which he made purchases of 13th- and 14th-century works. Among the acquisitions that he made for the museum were 69 works from the collections of ...