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Gordon Campbell


(b ?Andernach; fl 1590s; d before 1598).

German carpenter and copyist. He made a craftsman’s copybook (Cologne, Hist. Archv, Hs. Wfo. 276*) that reproduced important verbal and graphic evidence on particular design techniques of Late Gothic master masons in Germany. He included a few biographical details, such as variant spellings of his name and the fact that he was known in his home town of Andernach as Jacob Keul. On one page of architectural drawings he wrote, ‘Drawn in Vienna in the year 1593’, and on another, ‘Drawn in Breslau in Silesia in 1593’. By 1596 he had returned to Andernach and inscribed one of his drawings accordingly. The Andernach archives have revealed that he was the son of Jacob Keul, who may also have been a carpenter. In 1596 the younger Jacob Keul was paid from the accounts of the Watch and Artillery Master for working with several other carpenters at the ‘stone lodge on the Rhine’ (Koblenz, Landeshauptarchv, MS. 612. III. H. 4, fasc. 5, p. 215). In ...


Douglass Shand-Tucci


(b Pomfret, CT, April 28, 1869; d New York, April 23, 1924).

American architect and illustrator. In 1892–1913 he worked in partnership with Ralph Adams Cram, designing a remarkable series of Gothic Revival churches. His later work, in a variety of styles, culminated in the Nebraska State Capitol, a strikingly original design.

In 1884 Goodhue moved to New York, where he entered the office of Renwick, Aspinwall & Russell as an office boy. In 1891 he won a competition to design a proposed cathedral in Dallas but joined the office of Cram & Wentworth in Boston as chief draughtsman and informal partner. The following year Goodhue became a full partner in Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue, which, after the death of Charles Wentworth (1861–97) and his replacement by Frank Ferguson (1861–1926), became in 1898 Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson.

Before Goodhue’s arrival, Cram & Wentworth had already begun work on All Saints at Ashmont, Boston, their first major work. The final design clearly derives from their earlier proposal of ...


Jessica Savage

Illuminated 14th-century English picture Bible (285×210mm; London, BL, Add. MS. 47682), with 231 tinted drawings executed in a wide range of muted colours. The text in the form of summary captions written in a Gothic textura rotunda script in Anglo-Norman French, is partly in verse and partly in prose (with some words in Latin and English). The style of script and decoration place the manuscript in London with a production date of c. 1325–40. The text is in three sections, the first (fols 1r–9r) recounts the story of the Old Testament from the Creation to Noah; the second (fols 10r–38r) begins with Christ’s genealogy and focuses on the New Testament and Passion cycle (with the inclusion of three Crucifixion scenes); the final sequence (fols 39r–42v) covers the Signs of Doom and the Last Judgement. Each leaf is illustrated, except for two blanks, and divided into two sections where the artist assembled several scenes together. This layout was likely employed to pictorially summarize and narrate Biblical history for an illiterate audience....


Margot McIlwain Nishimura

Art-historical term for images in the margins of a manuscript page. Marginalia feature most prominently in Gothic illuminated manuscripts, c. 1250 to 1350, especially from France, Flanders, and England, although they are also found in manuscripts from Bohemia, Spain, and northern Italy, primarily Bologna. They are descendants of human, animal, and fantastic beings found in the inhabited initials of Romanesque illumination of the 11th and 12th centuries. True to this ancestry, marginalia are usually secular, and while religious subjects occur, themes from literature, folklore, and daily life are most common. Favourite subjects include hunting, agriculture, chivalric activities, romance, music-making, the bestiary, saints’ lives, religious and medical professions; depictions are fairly conventional, though often given satirical twists, with reversals of natural roles being especially favoured. Despite overwhelmingly secular associations, marginalia are most abundant in Christian devotional books, particularly Psalters and Books of Hours. An essential early resource for the study of marginalia in English and French Gothic manuscripts is Lilian Randall’s ...


Marco Torriti

[Stefano di Giovanni di Consolo]

(b Siena or Cortona, c. 1400; d Siena, April 1, 1450).

Italian painter and illuminator. He was the most original painter in Siena in the 15th century. Working within the Sienese tradition, he introduced elements derived from the decorative Gothic style and the realism of such contemporary Florentine innovators as Masaccio. Most of his surviving works are panel pictures, notably those from the altarpiece painted for S Francesco, Borgo San Sepolcro.

The name Sassetta appears to have been associated with him, mistakenly, only since the 18th century (Pecci, 1752), but it is generally used. He was the son of Giovanni di Consolo of Cortona (Bacci, 1936) and is firmly documented first in 1426 in Siena but was probably active there earlier. His influences included Taddeo di Bartolo, Martino di Bartolommeo (fl 1389; d c. 1435), Benedetto di Bindo, Gregorio di Cecco and other artists who were links between the great Sienese painters of the early 14th century (Simone Martini, Ambrogio Lorenzetti and Pietro Lorenzetti) and the art of the 15th-century Renaissance....


(b Augsburg, c. 1455; d Augsburg, Feb 25, 1521).

German printer. Schönsperger was appointed imperial court printer to Habsburg, House of family §I, (3) , for whom he published a magnificent prayer book (1513) set in a specially-designed Gothic type and printed in ten copies on vellum. He also published the Emperor’s Theuerdank (1517). His son, Johann Schönsperger the younger (...


Lynette Bosch

[Llorenz Saragozza]

(b Cariñena, Aragon; fl 1364; d 1401).

Spanish illuminator and painter. He worked in Valencia and Barcelona and was responsible for the continuation of the so-called International Gothic style in Catalonia, Aragon and Valencia. He is recorded in Valencia from 1364 to 1366; in the latter year he was working in Barcelona, where he was paid by Queen Eleanor (d 1374) for two retables, one of St Nicholas for the Franciscan convent in Calatayud and the other of St Catherine for the Franciscan convent in Teruel, both of which are untraced. In 1373 King Peter IV of Aragon (reg 1336–87) referred to him in a letter to the Council of Albocacer as the best painter of Barcelona. Lorenzo later returned to Valencia, where he is documented from 1377 to 1401, the year of his death. His varied commissions there included an embroidered cloth for the Armourers’ Guild (1390; untraced) and a series of ceiling paintings for the Casa del Peso Real (...