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Christopher Newall

[It. Scuola etrusca.]

Group of Italian and English landscape painters. It was formally associated in Rome only during the winter of 1883–4; the name of the group was never widely accepted and came to refer retrospectively to the landscapes that artists in this circle painted and exhibited together from the 1860s. They were united by an affection for the countryside of Italy. Under the influence of Giovanni Costa they revived the tradition of landscape painting that derived from Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin and that Thomas Jones, Pierre Henri Valenciennes and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot had explored. The aesthetic principles that determined the nature of the paintings of the Etruscan school were first discussed by Costa with George Heming Mason and Frederic Leighton, whom he had met in 1852 and 1853 respectively. From 1877 Costa exhibited landscapes at the Grosvenor Gallery, London, in the company of George James Howard (later 9th Earl of Carlisle; see...


Gordon Campbell

American pottery factory established in Phoenixville, PA, in 1867, when it was known as the Phoenix Pottery, Kaolin, and Fire Brick Company. The company made industrial pottery, and in 1882 began to make maiolica in the Etruscan style. Its best-known product was the ‘ Shell and Seaweed’ dinner service. In ...