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Myriam A. Ribeiro de Oliveira

(b Mariana, Minas Gerais, bapt Oct 18, 1762; d Mariana, Feb 2, 1830).

Brazilian painter. He was the most important painter active in the province of Minas Gerais during the Colonial period. He learnt his craft in the workshop with other artists and from such theoretical treatises as Andrea Pozzo’s Perspectivae pictorum atque architectorum (1693–1700) and such technical manuals as the Segredos necessarios para os officcios, artes e manufaturas (Lisbon, 1794), which was recorded in the inventory of his possessions. He was also strongly influenced by engravings of religious subjects in bibles and missals. He had a great influence on the development of religious painting in the region, especially through his numerous pupils and followers, who until the middle of the 19th century continued to make use of his compositional methods, particularly in the perspective ceilings of churches. Often referred to in documents as ‘professor de pintura’, in 1818 he unsuccessfully petitioned for official permission to found an art school in his native city. He left an extensive body of work, which includes decorative painting of architecture, single pictures, and the painting of religious statues (gilding and flesh-colouring). Especially famous are the vast perspective paintings such as the ...


Michelle Facos

(b Stockholm, Aug 16, 1759; d Stockholm, Dec 1, 1818).

Swedish painter, also active in England. He studied at the Kungliga Akademi för de Fria Konsterna in Stockholm from the late 1770s until 1787, when he painted King Gustav III in the prevailing Rococo style. Later that year he visited England, France and Italy, discovering the emergent Neo-classical style as well as the masterpieces of the Italian Renaissance. He then settled in London, working briefly in the studio of Joshua Reynolds, whose portrait he painted (1791; Stockholm, Ksthögskolan). Breda specialized in portrait painting and from 1788 exhibited annually at the Royal Academy in London. His style was eclectic, displaying the influence of such contemporaries as Reynolds and Gainsborough, as well as the Italian and Dutch Baroque masters, particularly Rembrandt.

Breda visited Birmingham during the early 1790s, painting portraits of several members of the Lunar Society, including James Watt (1792; London, N.P.G.). In 1795 he visited Paris; on his return to Stockholm the following year he immediately became a sought-after portrait painter and was made a professor at the academy that same year. The nascent Romanticism that can be seen in some of his London portraits developed steadily in the works painted during his later career in Stockholm. He was knighted in ...


Matthias Frehner

(b Rolle, Vaud, Oct 3, 1758; d Paris, Oct 9, 1815).

Swiss painter. He came of a prosperous Huguenot family and trained to be a merchant before deciding to become an artist. His first tutor was Nicolas Henri Joseph Fassin, who was staying in Geneva at the time; under his guidance, Brun made copies of Flemish masters. In Geneva he became friendly with Pierre-Louis De La Rive, worked in his Geneva studio and accompanied him on a journey to Mannheim and Dresden. In his own painting Brun soon specialized in charming hunting scenes with Rococo overtones in the style of Philips Wouwerman. In 1779 he set out on an Italian journey that lasted several years. In 1783 he travelled from Turin to Paris, where his hunting scenes soon became very popular with the French court: he painted portraits of Marie-Antoinette Hunting and Louis XVI Hunting. He became a member of the Académie Royale in Paris in 1788 but in 1792 fled from the French Revolution to his homeland; there he took part in the Vaudois independence movement. He was burgomaster of Versoix from ...



Glenn F. Benge

[Michel, Claude]

(b Nancy, Dec 20, 1738; d Paris, Mar 28, 1814).

French sculptor. He was the greatest master of lyrical small-scale sculpture active in France in the later 18th century, an age that witnessed the decline of the Rococo, the rise of Romanticism and the cataclysms of revolution. Clodion’s works in terracotta embody a host of fascinating and still unresolved problems, questions of autograph and attribution, the chronology of his many undated designs, the artistic sources of his works, and the position of his lyric art in the radically changing society of his time. Little is known of the sculptural activity of Clodion’s brothers (see 1992 exh. cat., nos 90–93): Sigisbert-Martial Michel (b13 Jan 1727); Sigisbert-François Michel (b Nancy, 24 Sep 1728; d Paris, 21 May 1811; see 1992 exh. cat., p. 29, nos 11 and 12); Nicholas Michel (b17 Nov 1733); and Pierre-Joseph Michel (b2 Nov 1737).

Clodion trained in Paris with his uncle ...


Ana Maria Rybko

(b Trapani, March 19, 1760; d Rome, Feb 16, 1821).

Italian painter. His father was a merchant in animal skins, and because of his habit of drawing on the hides Giuseppe was nicknamed ‘guastacuoi’. He had a period of apprenticeship with the sculptor Domenico Nolfo in Trapani and continued his studies in Palermo with the painter Padre Fedele da S Biagio (1717–1801) and later with Gioacchino Martorana. On returning to Trapani, he painted the picture the Virgin of Carmel Liberating the Souls in Purgatory. After a brief stay in Naples he moved to Rome, where, under the protection of Canova, he studied perspective and architectural drawing with the architect Giuseppe Barberi (1749–1809). Errante became moderately prosperous because he also executed miniatures, as well as making copies of—and restoring—Old Master paintings.

The first painting Errante completed in Rome is dated 1784: St Vincenzo, the altarpiece for SS Vincenzo e Anastasio alla Regola, which is characterized by its neat drawing and smooth tonal transitions. In the same period for the ...


Helena Bussers

(b Brussels, Dec 2, 1750; d Brussels, Feb 24, 1835).

Flemish sculptor. Until 1770 or 1771 he was apprenticed to Laurent Delvaux. His master’s influence with Charles of Lorraine, the Austrian Governor of the Netherlands, secured for him in 1769 an allowance during his whole period of training. Having moved to Paris and been accepted (agrée) by the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, Godecharle met the best French sculptors, such as Jean-Antoine Houdon, and enjoyed the protection of Jean-Baptiste Pigalle and of Jean-Pierre-Antoine Tassaert, who took him on as an apprentice. In 1775, when Tassaert was appointed court sculptor to Frederick the Great, Godecharle accompanied him to Berlin, where until 1777 he worked with his master on official commissions, mainly portraits of Prussian generals.

In 1778 Godecharle was in London; from there he travelled to Rome. In the same year he was awarded first prize for sculpture by the Accademia di S Luca; and in 1779...


Gordon Campbell

German faience factory founded in Saxony in 1770 by Johann Samuel Friedrich Tännich. The factory initially produced tableware in a Rococo style and later made creamware based on Wedgwood wares, which are sometimes marked as Wedgwood. The factory closed in 1848.


Eva B. Ottillinger

(fl Vienna, 1835–c. 1871).

Austrian furniture-maker. In 1835 he founded a metal-furniture factory in Vienna; its products extended from garden and park furniture to drawing-room furniture and ornamental figures in the Rococo Revival style. At the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, Kitschelt, along with Michael Thonet and Carl Leistler, represented the Vienna furniture industry, showing seats, tables and ornamental vases with floral decoration. At the Exposition Universelle of 1867 in Paris Kitschelt showed a four-poster bed and a suite designed by the architect Josef von Storck. In 1871 Kitschelt exhibited leather-upholstered seats in classical forms, designed by Rudolf Bernt (1844–1914), at the Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie, Vienna. Thereafter Kitschelt’s successors concentrated on the production of utility furniture made of tubular steel or moulded metal, portable furniture, tubular steel beds, ladders and garden tents.

M. Zweig: Das zweite Rokoko (Vienna, 1924)E. B. Ottillinger: Das Wiener Möbel des Historismus: Formgebungstheorie und Stiltendenzen...


Michael Preston Worley

(b Paris, 1759; d Paris, Sept 18, 1834).

French sculptor. He emulated the graceful Rococo style of his master, Clodion, and enjoyed a successful career, working largely for private patrons and exhibiting at the Paris Salon from 1791 to 1833. Most of his works are terracotta busts, statuettes and groups made in imitation of Clodion’s erotic Rococo female figures, but with an added touch of realism and a more marked interest in varieties of texture. Among them are a Bust of a Girl (Paris, Mus. Jacquemart-André), the statuettes Ganymede and Hebe (Bayonne, Mus. Bonnat) and the Young Girl with a Dove (1791; Paris, Louvre). More severe is his group Canadian Indians at their Infant’s Grave (1794; ex-Pierre Decourcelle priv. col., Paris). In 1801 he won the Prix de Rome for sculpture with the classicizing plaster bas-relief of Caius Gracchus Leaving his Wife Licinia to Rejoin his Partisans (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). This work and the bold and free terracotta sketch of ...


Gordon Campbell

French pottery near Bourg-en-Bresse (Ain), founded in 1760 by Baron Marron de Meillonnas at his château. The factory produced earthenware in the Rococo style. Its painters included Protais Pidoux (e.g. asparagus dish, Barnard Castle, Bowes Mus.), who worked at Meillonnas from 1763 to 1766. Baron Marron was guillotined in 1794...


Gordon Campbell

(b 1803; d c. 1878).

American silversmith. In 1839 he established a workshop in New York; the principal client for his Rococo Revival wares (mostly presentation plate) was Ball, Tompkins & Black. In 1864 Moore joined Tiffany family §1; the family business passed to his gifted son Edward Chandler Moore (1827–91), who subsequently designed and manufactured silverware for Tiffany & Co.,which took over the workshop in ...


revised by Margaret Barlow

A renewed interest among artists, writers, and collectors between c. 1820 and 1870 in Europe, predominantly in France, in the Rococo style in painting, the decorative arts, architecture, and sculpture. The revival of the Rococo served diverse social needs. As capitalism and middle-class democracy triumphed decisively in politics and the economy, the affluent and well-born put increasing value on the aristocratic culture of the previous century: its arts, manners and costumes, and luxury goods.

Among the earliest artists in the 19th century to appreciate and emulate 18th-century art were Jules-Robert Auguste (1789–1830), R. P. Bonington, Eugène Delacroix, and Paul Huet. For these young artists the Rococo was a celebration of sensual and sexual pleasure and a product of a free and poetic imagination. Looking particularly at the work of Watteau, they sought to reproduce the Rococo capacity for lyrical grace, its sophisticated understanding of colour, and its open, vibrant paint surfaces in their work. These qualities can be seen in such re-creations of 18th-century scenes as Eugène Lami’s ...


Harley Preston and Lin Barton



Emma Barker

(b Strasbourg, March 14, 1752; d Paris, March 24, 1825).

French painter. He studied at the Ecole Publique de Dessin in Strasbourg c. 1768 and in 1772 was admitted to the Académie Royale in Paris, where he was a pupil of Nicolas-Bernard Lépicié between 1776 and 1779. He did not become a member of the Académie and so could not exhibit at the Salon until the French Revolution. He worked for private patrons, producing erotic and pastoral subjects in a style influenced by François Boucher, Jean-Honoré Fragonard and Pierre-Antoine Baudouin; many of these pictures achieved popularity in the form of engravings. His most distinctive paintings are single figures of dancers and young ladies in soft, picturesque landscape settings (e.g. A Dancer, Waddesdon Manor, Bucks, NT). In 1793–4 he painted the Heroism of William Tell (Strasbourg, Mus. B.-A.) but this politically engaged subject was exceptional in his output. Although he continued to paint erotic scenes such as the Peeping Toms (Strasbourg, Mus. B.-A.), his later paintings have a delicate, evocative character that suggests the influence of Pierre-Paul Prud’hon. The moralizing theme and detailed finish of the ...


(b Basle, Jan 4, 1740; d Töss, nr Winterthur, Aug 6, 1806).

Swiss watercolourist, draughtsman, etcher and illustrator. His father was the landscape painter and engraver Johann Ulrich Schellenburg (1709–95), and his maternal grandfather was the painter Johann-Rudolf Huber. In 1748 the family returned to Winterthur, where Schellenburg attended his father’s art school. From 1763 to 1764 he lived in Basle, where he produced portraits and Bauernstücklein (small rural pictures). After his return to Winterthur in 1774, he worked extensively as a draughtsman and etcher. At the same time he continued to work as an illustrator, undertaking commissions for publishers in Switzerland and Germany. These included Johann Kasper Lavater’s Physiognomische Fragmente (Winterthur, 1775–8) and work in the specialist area of entomology in Helvetische Entomologie (Zurich, 1798) and Archiv für Insektengeschichte (Zurich and Winterthur, 1781).

In addition to scientific illustrations, Schellenburg produced engravings of Swiss costumes and folklore, as in Recueil de XXIV différens costumes de la ville et du canton du Basle...


Stephan Welz

(b Strelitz, Prussia [now Germany], 1741; d Cape Town, Dec 29, 1811).

South African silversmith of German birth. In 1768 he arrived at Cape Town, where he worked as sword-cutler in the service of the Dutch East India Company until 1778. The following year he started his own business. He was the most accomplished of the Cape silversmiths and the first to introduce the Rococo style, although it was always used in a restrained Dutch manner. Towards the end of his career he also produced pieces in a Neo-classical style, probably inspired by silverware brought by English immigrants. His most exuberant designs are silver furniture mounts with a cast floral motif. He was one of the first Cape silversmiths to make such large domestic pieces as tea- and coffee-pots and covered sugar bowls, usually with cast floral finials and supports. The only recorded pair of Cape candlesticks (Cape Town, S. Afr. Cult. Hist. Mus.) is by Schmidt.

S. Welz: Cape Silver and Silversmiths...


Austrian, 19th century, male.

Born 17 May 1854, in Vienna; died 1903, in Vienna.

Painter. Figures, portraits, genre scenes.

The son of Karl Schweninger the Elder, Karl the Younger painted genre scenes with figures in rococo costume.


Gordon Campbell

(b 1785; d 1852).

French furniture-maker and wine-merchant , active in New Orleans. He has traditionally been regarded (together with Prudent Mallard) as one of the pioneer furniture-makers of the period, and many large carved Rococo Revival pieces have been attributed to his workshop. Recent research has emphasised his role as a furniture retailer (and wine-merchant), and his workshop is now thought to have been relatively small....


Christina Frehner-Bühler

(b Stuttgart, May 22, 1749; d Berne, Sept 22, 1828).

German sculptor, stuccoist and teacher. He was one of the leading German sculptors in the transitional period between Rococo and Neo-classicism. He trained in Stuttgart in 1761 with the stuccoist Luigi Bossi, then with the sculptor Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Beyer at the Stuttgart Akademie (Karlsschule). Having entered the service of Charles-Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, he created his first independent works at the age of 20 for Schloss Solitude, outside Stuttgart. In 1771 he was appointed stuccoist to the court, and in 1772 he became a member of the Kunstakademie at Ludwigsburg; he also worked as a modeller for the Ludwigsburg Porcelain Factory (see Ludwigsburg §2). In 1773 he became a tutor at the Karlsschule, where one of his pupils was Johann Heinrich von Dannecker, later one of the leading representatives of German Neo-classicism. Few of Sonnenschein’s works from his years in Stuttgart survive. Feeling exploited by the Duke, he left for Zurich, where he was befriended by Johann Kasper Lavater. At the Kunstschule, founded in ...